Managed object internals, Part 3. The layout of a managed array

Arrays are one of the basic building blocks of every applications. Even if you do not use arrays directly every day you definitely use them indirectly as part of almost any library.

C# has arrays from the very beginning and back in the day that was the only "generic"-like and type safe data structure available. Today you may use them less frequently directly but every time you need to squeeze the performance, there is a chance you'll switch to them from some higher-level data structure like List<T>.

Array and the CLR has a very special relationship but today we're going to explore them from the user's point of view. We'll talk about the following:

  • Will explore one of the weirdest C# feature called array covariance
  • Will discuss array's internal structure
  • Will explore some perf tricks that we can do to squeeze even more perf from the array

The whole series

Array covariance, and a bit of history

One of the strangest feature in the C# language is an array covariance: an ability to assign an array of type T to array of type object or any other base type of T.

string[] strings = new[] { "1", "2" };
object[] objects = strings;

This conversion is not totally type safe. If the objects variable is used only for reading the data from it, everything is fine. But if you’ll try to modify the array then failure can occur if the argument will be of an incompatible type:

objects[0] = 42; //runtime error

There is a well-known joke in the .NET community about this feature: C# authors back in the inception days were trying really hard to copy every aspect of the Java ecosystem to the CLR world, so they copied language design issues as well.

But I don't think this is the reason:)

Back in the late 90-s, the CLR doesn't have generics. Right? And how in this case a language user can write reusable code that deals with array of arbitrary data types? For instance, how to write a function that dumps arbitrary arrays to the console?

One way to do that is to define a function that takes object[] and force every caller to convert the array manually by copying it into the array of objects. This will work, but would be highly inefficient. Another solution is to allow conversion from any arrays of reference types to object[], i.e. preserve IS-A relationship for Derived[] to Base[] where Derived inherits from the Base. In case of arrays of value types the conversion won’t work but at least some genericity can be achieved.

Lack of generics in the first CLR version forced designers to weaken the type system. But that decision (I assume) was deliberate, not just a copycat from the Java ecosystem.

The internal structure and implementation details

Array covariance opens a hole in the type system at compile time, but it doesn't mean that a type error will crash the application (similar "error" in C++ will lead to an “undefined behavior”). The CLR will ensure that the type safety holds, but the check will happen at runtime. To do that the CLR should store the type of array element and make a check when a user tries to change an array instance. Luckily this check is only needed for arrays of reference types because structs are 'sealed' and does not support inheritance.

Even though there is an implicit conversion between different value types (like from int to byte), there is no implicit or explicit conversions between int[] and byte[]. Array covariance conversion is reference conversion that doesn't change the layout of the converted object and keeps a referential identity of the object being converted.

In the older version of the CLR, arrays of reference and value types had different layouts. An array of reference type had a reference to a type handle of an element in every instance:


This has been changed in recent version of the CLR and now the element type is stored in the method table:


For more information about the layout, see the following snippets in the CoreClr codebase:

// Get the element type for the array, this works whether the element
// type is stored in the array or not

inline TypeHandle GetArrayElementTypeHandle() const
TypeHandle GetArrayElementTypeHandle()

return GetMethodTable()->GetApproxArrayElementTypeHandle();
TypeHandle GetApproxArrayElementTypeHandle()

return TypeHandle::FromTAddr(m_ElementTypeHnd);
PerInstInfo_t m_pPerInstInfo;
TADDR         m_ElementTypeHnd;
TADDR         m_pMultipurposeSlot1;

I'm not sure when the array layout was changed (*) but it seems there was a tradeoff between speed and (managed) memory. Initial implementation (when the type handle was stored in every array instance) should've been faster due to memory locality, but definitely had non-negligible memory overhead. Back then all arrays of reference types had shared method tables. But right now this is no longer the case: each array of reference type has its own method table that points to the same EEClass and the pointer to an element type handle.

(*) Maybe somebody from the CLR team can shed some lights on that.

We know how the CLR stores the element type of an array and now we can explore the CoreClr codebase to see how the actual check is implemented.

First, we need to find the place where the check is happening. Array is a very special type for the CLR and there is no "go to declaration" button in the IDE that will "decompile" the array and show the source code. But we know that the check happens in the indexer setter that corresponds to a set of IL instructions StElem*:

Knowing the instruction, we can easily find the implementation in the codebase. As far as I can tell, the implementation resides in jithelpers.cpp. Here is a slightly simplified version of the method JIT_Stelem_Ref_Portable:

/* assigns 'val to 'array[idx], after doing all the proper checks */

HCIMPL3(void, JIT_Stelem_Ref_Portable, PtrArray* array, unsigned idx, Object *val


if (!array)
// ST: explicit check that the array is not null
if (idx >= array->GetNumComponents())
// ST: bounds check

if (val)
MethodTable *valMT = val->GetMethodTable();
// ST: getting type of an array element
TypeHandle arrayElemTH = array->GetArrayElementTypeHandle();

// ST: g_pObjectClass is a pointer to EEClass instance of the System.Object
// ST: if the element is object than the operation is successful.
if (arrayElemTH != TypeHandle(valMT) && arrayElemTH != TypeHandle(g_pObjectClass))
// ST: need to check that the value is compatible with the element type
TypeHandle::CastResult result = ObjIsInstanceOfNoGC(val, arrayElemTH);
if (result != TypeHandle::CanCast)
// ST: ArrayStoreCheck throws ArrayTypeMismatchException if the types are incompatible
if (HCCALL2(ArrayStoreCheck, (Object**)&val, (PtrArray**)&array) != NULL)

(JIT_WriteBarrier, (Object **)&array->m_Array[idx], val);
// no need to go through write-barrier for NULL


Increasing the performance by removing the type check

Now we know that the CLR does under the hood to guarantee type safety for arrays of reference types. Every "write" to a array instance has an additional check that can be non-negligible if the array is used on the extremely hot path. But before getting into a wrong conclusion, let's check how expensive the check is.

To avoid the check, we could change the CLR or we can use a well-known trick: wrap an object into a struct:

public struct ObjectWrapper
public readonly object
public ObjectWrapper(object
= instance;

And compare the time for object[] and ObjectWrapper[]:

private const int ArraySize = 100_000;
private object[] _objects = new object[ArraySize];
private ObjectWrapper[] _wrappers = new ObjectWrapper[ArraySize];
private object _objectInstance = new object();
private ObjectWrapper _wrapperInstanace = new ObjectWrapper(new object

public void
for (int i = 0; i < _objects.Length; i++

public void
for (int i = 0; i < _objects.Length; i++
= _wrapperInstanace;

The results are:

        Method |     Mean |     Error |    StdDev |
-------------- |---------:|----------:|----------:|
     WithCheck | 807.7 us | 15.871 us | 27.797 us |
  WithoutCheck | 442.7 us |  9.371 us |  8.765 us |

Don't be confused with "almost 2x" performance difference. Even for the worst case, it takes less than a millisecond to assign 100K elements. The performance is extremely good. But the difference could be noticeable in the real world.

Many performance critical .NET applications use object pools. The pool allows to reuse a managed instance without creating a new one each time. This approach reduces the memory pressure and could have a very reasonable impact on the application performance.

An object pool can be implemented based on a concurrent data structure like ConcurrentQueue or based on a simple array. Here is a snippet from the object pool implementation in the Roslyn codebase:

internal class ObjectPool<T> where T : class
private struct Element
internal T

// Storage for the pool objects. The first item is stored in a dedicated field because we
    // expect to be able to satisfy most requests from it.
    private T
private readonly Element
[] _items;

// other members ommitted for brievity

The implementation manages an array of cached items but instead of using T[] the pool wraps T into the struct Element to avoid the check at the runtime.

Some time ago I've fixed an object pool in our application to get 30% performance improvement for the parsing phase. This was not due to the trick that I've described here, and was related to concurrent access of the pool. But the point is that object pools could be on the hot path of an application and even small performance improvements like one mentioned above could have a reasonable impact on the end to end performance.

Comments (4)

  1. Maxim says:

    Hi, Sergey.

    Thank you for another great article.

    Could you describe please, how do generics helps with this issue? Does it prevents type check and increase performance in this case?

    1. Hey Maxim,

      Generics will make the conversion from `T[]` to `object[]` unnecessary, because in order to write generic code a user might just write a generic function. So in this case the covariance would be a redundant feature that will remove the necessity for the check in the setter altogether.

  2. Cao says:

    Hello Sergey,

    What is the overhead of using the last perf trick? I suppose the generic value type will force the JIT to generate specific methods, so there will be less machine code sharing?
    Because if there is no overhead, the trick should be used in most collection types like List.

    1. The trick is indeed a tradeoff between perf and memory. For every struct the CLR generates a specialized version of the generic. And every other instantiation affects perf a little bit. But in this case we know that we’ll add just one specialization that will be used across the app. It means that this trick won’t affect memory in any way just because the overhead is very small. But this approach can’t be scaled across the board because it will lead to an excessive code bloating and can’t be used by the CLR in general.

      If you’re interested in the design tradeoff for the CLR generics, maybe you’ll find the following article written by the author of generics (Don Syme) interesting:

      “Design and Implementation of Generics for the .NET Common Language Runtime” –

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