If I have multiple attached keyboards, how can I read input from each one individually?

Raw Input is a feature of Windows that lets you obtain keyboard, mouse, or generic HID input. Okay, the generic HID input is nice, but the thing that is interesting today is the fact that the keyboard and mouse input is tagged with the device that generated it. This means that if you have multiple keyboards connected to your computer (say, the laptop integrated keyboard plus an external USB keyboard), you can distinguish the two input sources.

Let's do it.

Remember that Little Programs do very little to no error checking.

As usual, start with the scratch program and make these change:

#include <strsafe.h>

OnCreate(HWND hwnd, LPCREATESTRUCT lpcs)
  g_hwndChild = CreateWindow(TEXT("listbox"), NULL,
      0, 0, 0, 0, hwnd, NULL, g_hinst, 0);

  dev.usUsagePage = 1;
  dev.usUsage = 6;
  dev.dwFlags = 0;
  dev.hwndTarget = hwnd;
  RegisterRawInputDevices(&dev, 1, sizeof(dev));

  return TRUE;

OnDestroy(HWND hwnd)
  dev.usUsagePage = 1;
  dev.usUsage = 6;
  dev.dwFlags = RIDEV_REMOVE;
  dev.hwndTarget = hwnd;
  RegisterRawInputDevices(&dev, 1, sizeof(dev));


First, we create a list box which we will use to display the input we receive.

Next, we register our window to receive raw keyboard input. The magic numbers for keyboard are Usage Page 1 and Usage 6. These magic numbers come from the USB HID specification.

The flip side of the coin is that we unregister when our window is destroyed.

Now the fun part: Receiving the input!

#define HANDLE_WM_INPUT(hwnd, wParam, lParam, fn) \
  ((fn)((hwnd), GET_RAWINPUT_CODE_WPARAM(wParam), \
        (HRAWINPUT)(lParam)), 0)

void OnInput(HWND hwnd, WPARAM code, HRAWINPUT hRawInput)
  UINT dwSize;
  GetRawInputData(hRawInput, RID_INPUT, nullptr,
                  &dwSize, sizeof(RAWINPUTHEADER));
  RAWINPUT *input = (RAWINPUT *)malloc(dwSize);
  GetRawInputData(hRawInput, RID_INPUT, input,
                  &dwSize, sizeof(RAWINPUTHEADER));
  if (input->header.dwType == RIM_TYPEKEYBOARD) {
    TCHAR prefix[80];
    prefix[0] = TEXT('\0');
    if (input->data.keyboard.Flags & RI_KEY_E0) {
        StringCchCat(prefix, ARRAYSIZE(prefix), TEXT("E0 "));
    if (input->data.keyboard.Flags & RI_KEY_E1) {
        StringCchCat(prefix, ARRAYSIZE(prefix), TEXT("E1 "));

    TCHAR buffer[256];
    StringCchPrintf(buffer, ARRAYSIZE(buffer),
        TEXT("%p, msg=%04x, vk=%04x, scanCode=%s%02x, %s"),
        (input->data.keyboard.Flags & RI_KEY_BREAK)
            ? TEXT("release") : TEXT("press"));
    ListBox_AddString(g_hwndChild, buffer);
  DefRawInputProc(&input, 1, sizeof(RAWINPUTHEADER));

    HANDLE_MSG(hwnd, WM_INPUT, OnInput);

When we get the WM_INPUT message, we use the Get­Raw­Input­Data function to convert the raw input handle to a raw input structure. This involves the standard two-step of first finding out how much memory you need, then allocating that memory and trying again.

Do note that if you are going to use a preallocated buffer (for example, to handle the common case where the raw input fits in less than 80 bytes), your buffer still must be properly aligned for a RAWINPUT structure. This is one of the basic ground rules, but it's worth calling out explicitly because you are going to be tempted to preallocate the buffer. We didn't have to worry about it here because the malloc function guarantees that the allocated buffer is suitably aligned.

Next, we confirm that the input is keyboard input. This is theoretically not necessary because the only input we registered for is keyboard input, but I feel better checking for it, because somebody might do a Register­Raw­Input­Devices and register some other type of input, and I don't want to get faked out.

After verifying that we do indeed have keyboard input, we extract the payload:

  • The device handle tells us which keyboard generated the input.
  • The Message is the window message that was generated.
  • The VKey is the virtual key code.
  • The MakeCode is the scan code.
  • The Flags provide other information:
    • Which prefixes are present on the scan code.

    • Whether this is a make (press) or break (release).

Finally, we call Def­Raw­Input­Proc to allow default processing to occur. This lets the keypress enter the normal input system.

Note that although there's a Get­Raw­Input­Device­List function which lets you find all the keyboard devices, that is not useful in practice because modern computers have a ton of special-purpose keyboards hiding inside them. For example, the volume control knobs on your laptop might actually be a tiny two-button keyboard.

Comments (6)
  1. Vilx- says:

    Ahh, a few years ago I was trying to do EXACTLY this, but with a twist – I not only wanted to determine WHICH keyboard the code originated at, but also REPLACE it (suppress + SendInput() would work too) , if it was from a specific keyboard. Basically I wanted to take a cheap USB keypad and turn it into a media control device (play/pause/next/etc). But it could have other applications as well.

    Turns out, you can’t do this with Windows APIs. At least you couldn’t in Windows 7. Perhaps there’s something new in Windows 10 that don’t know about. But back then, Raw Input could distinguish between keyboards, but not suppress the events; while Low Level Keyboard Hooks could suppress the events, but not determine which keyboard they originated from. The only solution was to use a specialized 3rd party hardware driver to do the trick. It works flawlessly to this day, but I sure do wish there was a native way to achieve it! :)

    1. ChDF T says:

      Tom Scott did something like that: He build a physical emoji keyboard by connecting multiple usb keyboards to a single PC and remapping the keys to emojis in software (explanation video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lIFE7h3m40U ). Although his solution was a bodge, it proves that the required APIs are available.

      1. Vilx- says:

        Thanks, I’ll check it out later. Although in the description of the video is mentioned AutoHotKey, which makes me suspicious, since AHK doesn’t have such a capability (or didn’t when I checked it out a while ago).

      2. Vilx- says:

        OK, I watched the video. It seems I was wrong – it uses LuaMacros instead to do the keyboard reading. A quick glance at the source code + a quick glance at the forum (and the problems people report having) seems to hint that LuaMacros is still using the same two interfaces – Low Level Keyboard Hooks and Raw Input. Apparently they managed to combine them somehow, although the results seem to be less than perfect anyway, and many keys are still unblockable. This is, if I remember correctly, why I abandoned this approach myself when looking for a solution.

  2. Azarien says:

    Now I feel deceived, because you, Raymond, some years ago, suggested this cannot be done without writing one’s own keyboard driver. Or at least that was my impression.

  3. onodera says:

    > Next, we register our window to receive raw keyboard input. The magic numbers for keyboard are Usage Page 1 and Usage 6. These magic numbers come from the USB HID specification.

    Does this work for PS/2 input devices as well?

Comments are closed.

Skip to main content