A big little program: Monitoring Internet Explorer and Explorer windows, part 1: Enumeration

Normally, Monday is the day for Little Programs, but this time I'm going to spend a few days on a single Little Program. Now, this might very well disqualify it from the name Little Program, but the concepts are still little; all I'm doing is snapping blocks together. (Plus, it's my Web site, so you can just suck it.)

The goal of our Little Program is to monitor Internet Explorer and Explorer windows as they are created, navigate to new locations, and are destroyed. (In principle, other Web browsers can participate in this protocol, but I don't know of any that do, so I'll assume that only Explorer and Internet Explorer register with the Shell­Windows object.)

The key to all this is the Shell­Windows object, which we've spent time playing with in the past.

Today we're going to write a helper function that takes an object returned by the Shell­Windows object and extract the window handle and current location. This is the guts of our Little Program, so I'm basically doing the cool stuff up front, and then leaving the annoying bits for later.

#define UNICODE
#define _UNICODE
#define STRICT
#include <windows.h>
#include <ole2.h>
#include <iostream>

#include <shlobj.h>
#include <atlbase.h>
#include <atlalloc.h>

Now that we got the preliminary header file goop out of the way, we can write the exciting function.

HRESULT GetBrowserInfo(IUnknown *punk, HWND *phwnd,
                       PWSTR *ppszLocation)

 CComPtr<IShellBrowser> spsb;
 hr = IUnknown_QueryService(punk, SID_STopLevelBrowser,
 if (FAILED(hr)) return hr;

 hr = spsb->GetWindow(phwnd);
 if (FAILED(hr)) return hr;

 hr = GetLocationFromView(spsb, ppszLocation);
 if (SUCCEEDED(hr)) return hr;

 return GetLocationFromBrowser(punk, ppszLocation);

Awfully short for what purported to be an exciting function, but that's because I hid the exciting parts in helper functions.

First, we take the object and ask to locate the top-level browser, since that's where some of the interesting information hangs out. We ask for the IShell­Browser so we can get the window handle via the base class method IOle­Window::Get­Window. That's the easy part.

Getting the current location is tricky, because Explorer windows do it one way, and Internet Explorer does it another way. That's because Explorer windows browse the shell namespace, whereas Internet Explorer windows browse the Internet. Shell namespace locations are represented by pidls, whereas Internet locations are represented by URLs.

First, the Explorer way:

HRESULT GetLocationFromView(IShellBrowser *psb,
                            PWSTR *ppszLocation)

 *ppszLocation = nullptr;

 CComPtr<IShellView> spsv;
 hr = psb->QueryActiveShellView(&spsv);
 if (FAILED(hr)) return hr;

 CComQIPtr<IPersistIDList> sppidl(spsv);
 if (!sppidl) return E_FAIL;

 hr = sppidl->GetIDList(&spidl);
 if (FAILED(hr)) return hr;

 CComPtr<IShellItem> spsi;
 hr = SHCreateItemFromIDList(spidl, IID_PPV_ARGS(&spsi));
 if (FAILED(hr)) return hr;

 return hr;

The maze we navigate here is to start from the IShell­Browser and get to the IShell­View by calling IShell­Browser::Query­Active­Shell­View. It's rather annoying that the IShell­Browser::Query­Active­Shell­View method always returns you an IShell­View rather than being forward-looking and letting you pass a riid/ppv pair. (The shell has for the most part learned this lesson, and new object creation or retrieval functions tend to take the riid/ppv pair so you can specify your ring size when you place the order instead of always getting a size 6 ring and then having to resize it.) Since IShell­Browser::Query­Active­Shell­View doesn't let us specify the desired interface, we have to do the Query­Interface ourselves to convert the IShell­View into what we really want: The IPersist­ID­List.

From the IPersist­ID­List we ask for the pidl, which now tells us what the Explorer window is looking at. For display purposes, we convert it into a string by converting the pidl into an IShell­Item (notice the handy riid/ppv pair produced by the type-checking IID_PPV_ARGS macro) and then asking the shell item for its parsing name.

(We saw techniques similar to this a few years ago.)

If it turns out we don't have an Explorer window, then we try again using the Web browser interfaces:

HRESULT GetLocationFromBrowser(IUnknown *punk,
                               PWSTR *ppszLocation)

 CComQIPtr<IWebBrowser2> spwb2(punk);
 if (!spwb2) return E_FAIL;

 CComBSTR sbsLocation;
 hr = spwb2->get_LocationURL(&sbsLocation);
 if (FAILED(hr)) return hr;

 return SHStrDupW(sbsLocation, ppszLocation);

We turn the object into an IWeb­Browser2 and ask for the Location­URL property. The annoyance here is that IWeb­Browser2 is an automation interface, so it uses BSTR for passing strings around, which is different from IShell­Item::Get­Display­Name which uses Co­Task­Mem­Alloc, since that is the convention for non-dispatch COM interfaces. We therefore have to convert the BSTR to a task-allocated PWSTR before returning, so that the return value is consistent with Get­Location­From­View.

Finally, we call the function in a loop to test that it actually works:

CComPtr<IShellWindows> g_spWindows;

HRESULT DumpWindows()
 CComPtr<IUnknown> spunkEnum;
 HRESULT hr = g_spWindows->_NewEnum(&spunkEnum);
 if (FAILED(hr)) return hr;

 CComQIPtr<IEnumVARIANT> spev(spunkEnum);
 for (CComVariant svar;
      spev->Next(1, &svar, nullptr) == S_OK;
      svar.Clear()) {
  if (svar.vt != VT_DISPATCH) continue;

  HWND hwnd;
  CComHeapPtr<WCHAR> spszLocation;
  if (FAILED(GetBrowserInfo(svar.pdispVal, &hwnd,
                            &spszLocation))) continue;

   std::wcout << hwnd
              << L" "
              << static_cast<PCWSTR>(spszLocation)
              << std::endl;
 return S_OK;

int __cdecl wmain(int, PWSTR argv[])
 CCoInitialize init;

 return 0;

Yes, I stupidly made g_spWindows a global variable, but it'll come in handy later. (It's still stupid, but at least there's a reason for the stupidity.)

Okay, we can take this program for a spin. When you run it, it should print the window handles and locations of all your Explorer and Internet Explorer windows.

Before we can start hooking up events to keep this list up to date, we need to learn a bit about connection points and using dispatch interfaces as connection point interfaces. We'll spend a few days on those topics, then return to our program.

Comments (18)
  1. I know this is a Little Program (or is it?) but the cleanup semantics for GetBrowserInfo are a little confusing… it seems like in some code paths, it can return a successful HRESULT, but still hand a chunk of memory back to its caller which it expects its caller to deallocate.

  2. > if (SUCCEEDED(hr)) return hr;

    OH! Never mind. Ignore my previous comment.

  3. pcooper says:

    I'm curious about your parenthetical remark that Shell­Windows could be a place for other web browsers to register themselves, and thus somehow become integrated into the shell. Was this something that was a design goal and just never caught on? What advantages would there be for the user if other browsers did that?

    [I don't know whether that was the intent, but it's there if they want it. It would allow the user to be able to control browser windows via script, which is something people seem really keen on doing to IE windows, so I assume they're keen on doing it with other browser windows too. -Raymond]
  4. Andrew says:

    While we all appreciate your detailed and helpful articles about Windows programming, we could also do without being told to suck your dick. I’m not sure what you’re trying to accomplish by making such statements, but I hope you can find a less offensive way to do it in the future.

  5. Joshua says:

    @Andrew: That was uncalled for. I'd appreciate it if you'd clean your mouth.

  6. @Andrew:

    Wasn't he actually saying to suck his website?

    All he said was to suck it, which is more likely short for suck it up, a USA informal way of saying put up with something difficult. It was you who managed to put two and two together and ended up so far away from four.

  7. @Joshua says:

    I assume he's no native speaker and misread "suck it" as being offensive. But maybe he'd better be quiet about things instead of running on assumptions.

    (Ok, I'm no native speaker myself. But I'm pretty sure it doesn't fit Raymond's style of writing to say what Andrew accused him of)

  8. @Andrew: same could be said about you – your comment could have been a lot more polite. And Raymond, at least, is at his own house, and can do whatever he wants. But we're just guests.

  9. Nick says:

    @Everyone: Is it only me who took Andrew's remark as sarcastic/humorous/not serious? LOL.

  10. Drak says:

    @Nick: doesn't strike me as humourous at all, really. And, as a non-native, I also know what Raymond meant and took no offense.

    On topic: interesting!

  11. Neil says:

    So, which is more efficient, PWSTR or BSTR?

    Also, other browsers probably only implement MSAA.

  12. @Neil says:

    More efficient in what respect? While they both encode strings as UTF-16 character sequences and are NUL-terminated they differ in the following aspects:

    BSTR's have an explicit length field, PWSTR's do not.

    BSTR's can have embedded NUL characters, PWSTR's cannot.

  13. John Doe says:

    Actually, "suck it" isn't without a really, really bad connotation. No matter what "it" is.


    "Suck it up" would be much, much more appropriate.


    Better yet, don't use "suck" in it.

    @Neil, whatever you want, really. If you have to translate from/to one of them, that's the least efficient one. Pick the one you'll need to translate the least.

    Or, put up some code that actually tests e.g. the allocation and freeing functions, although I think you won't find out anything spectacular there.

  14. John says:

    Obviously it was meant tongue in cheek here, but the phrase "suck it" has a pretty well understood meaning.  Some developer was fired over a stupid joke about dongles (and the ensuing attention it received) so it's always good advice to watch what you say.

  15. John says:

    @voo:  Sorry, but offense is in the eye of the beholder.  That it doesn't offend you or me doesn't mean it doesn't offend someone else.  Yes, this brings the threshold down to the lowest common denominator, but that's just the PC world we live in.

  16. voo says:

    Wow some people really have a thin hide.. and interpret way too much into rather informal sayings.

    And the "not a native speaker" excuse is rather weak, because I bet several people here aren't either (wait, I *know* that for a fact, because English certainly isn't my first language) and didn't get offended without doing at least a bit of research over a phrase they're apparently unfamiliar with. Although I assume getting offended by things one doesn't understand is pretty basic human nature.

    [I wonder if these people are also offended by "How's it hangin?" -Raymond]
  17. Joshua Boyce says:

    @John: Maybe the lowest common denominator should just "suck it"? ;)

  18. So is it just me? This program hangs in the call to Next() on Windows 8. It seems to execute just fine on Windows 7. [test of two :) ]

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