PowerShell for Failover Clustering in Windows Server 2008 R2

Hi Cluster Fans,


In Windows Server 2008 R2 (“R2”) we are introducing PowerShell as the new scripting language for clustering technologies.  PowerShell with Failover Clustering will replace Cluster.exe and the Windows Server 2008 R2 release will be the deprecation release for Cluster.exe.  This means it will still be available for use so it doesn’t break legacy scripts, but no improvements have been made and Cluster.exe will be completely removed in the next release of Windows Server.  This allows ample time for you to learn (and love) PowerShell.


PowerShell provides numerous benefits over standard command line interfaces, including easily customizable scripts and the dynamic use of variables.  In Windows Server 2008 R2, PowerShell can also be run on Server Core machines.  Using PowerShell on a Core cluster, you can directly run cluster Validation and generate dependency reports, without needing to manage the Core node through a UI-based remote machine. 


This blog post will provide an overview of PowerShell with Failover Clustering.  In the next few weeks, a post about PowerShell with Network Load Balancing (NLB) will be added to the site.


How do I get R2 Beta?


                There are numerous ways to get the Windows Server 2008 R2 Beta build which includes Failover Clustering (on Enterprise and Datacenter editions).  If you work for an organization which partners with Microsoft, try contacting your Technology Account Manager (TAM) to see if they can provide you with access.  If your organization is enrolled in the Technology Adoption Program (TAP) you may also have access through this channel.  Others may enroll in the Microsoft Connect program (http://connect.microsoft.com/) to receive access to major builds.  The Beta build will be available very shortly for deployment and testing.


We want your feedback!


PowerShell is going to be the cluster scripting language for the future – and you have the opportunity to influence its design and use for the next decade during the Beta feedback period.  Some high-level areas of feedback for the PowerShell commands (cmdlets) which we are looking for include the following:


·         Was it easy to find the cmdlet you wanted?


·         Are the parameters consistent between cmdlets?


·         Is the in-box help and example useful?


·         Has the PowerShell utility met your scripting needs?


·         Was there a cmdlet which did something different than you expected from its name or description?


·         Anything else?


 


We encourage you to provide feedback through the appropriate channels on the Microsoft Connect site, through your TAM, or TAP Program Manager.  You may also email your feedback to us via the “Email” link in the upper left corner of this page.


Running Failover Clustering with PowerShell


The name of the Failover Clustering module is FailoverClusters.


[Update: 10/5/2009] For the Windows Server 2008 R2 RTM release of the product you may access PowerShell management, launch as an Administrator and load ALL of your PowerShell modules automatically by selecting: Start à Administrator Tools à Windows PowerShell Modules.


 


Loading PowerShell with Failover Clustering can be done in two ways:


1.       Open Failover Cluster PowerShell Management from the shortcut in Administrative Tools


§  This option will appear after the Failover Clustering feature is installed


 


powershell


 


 


2.       Open PowerShell on your machine through right-clicking and selecting Run as administrator


§  Load the module with the command: Import-Module FailoverClusters


 


Failover Clustering PowerShell Cmdlets


Cmdlets (“command-lets”) form the basis of the PowerShell instruction set.  The design goal was for feature parity between the Failover Cluster Manager GUI and PowerShell, so any operation can be performed on both (with cluster migration being the exception, unavailable with PowerShell).  Other new R2 Failover Clustering features are also supported by PowerShell, including Cluster Shared Volumes (CSV) and Live Migration.  Integration with and manageability of Hyper-V Virtual Machines (VMs) is also important and PowerShell give you the ability to create and manage highly-available VMs, configure CSV volumes, and perform a Quick Migration (Move-ClusterGroup)  or a Live Migration (Move-ClusterVirtualMachineRole).


To get a complete list of the cmdlets, run the following command: Get-Command -Module FailoverClusters


The following is a list of Failover Clustering cmdlets for the Beta release.  Note that these are subject to change.


 


Name


—-


Add-ClusterDisk


Add-ClusterFileServerRole


Add-ClusterGenericApplicationRole


Add-ClusterGenericScriptRole


Add-ClusterGenericServiceRole


Add-ClusterGroup


Add-ClusterNode


Add-ClusterPrintServerRole


Add-ClusterResource


Add-ClusterResourceDependency


Add-ClusterResourceType


Add-ClusterServerRole


Add-ClusterSharedVolume


Add-ClusterVirtualMachineRole


Block-ClusterAccess


Clear-ClusterDiskReservation


Clear-ClusterNode


Fail-ClusterResource


Get-Cluster


Get-ClusterAccess


Get-ClusterAvailableDisk


Get-ClusterGroup


Get-ClusterLog


Get-ClusterNetwork


Get-ClusterNetworkInterface


Get-ClusterNode


Get-ClusterOwnerNode


Get-ClusterParameter


Get-ClusterQuorum


Get-ClusterResource


Get-ClusterResourceDependency


Get-ClusterResourceDependencyReport


Get-ClusterResourceType


Get-ClusterSharedVolume


Grant-ClusterAccess


Move-ClusterGroup


Move-ClusterResource


Move-ClusterSharedVolume


Move-ClusterVirtualMachineRole


New-Cluster


Remove-Cluster


Remove-ClusterAccess


Remove-ClusterGroup


Remove-ClusterNode


Remove-ClusterResource


Remove-ClusterResourceDependency


Remove-ClusterResourceType


Remove-ClusterSharedVolume


Resume-ClusterNode


Resume-ClusterResource


Set-ClusterLog


Set-ClusterOwnerNode


Set-ClusterParameter


Set-ClusterQuorum


Set-ClusterResourceDependency


Start-Cluster


Start-ClusterGroup


Start-ClusterNode


Start-ClusterResource


Stop-Cluster


Stop-ClusterGroup


Stop-ClusterNode


Stop-ClusterResource


Suspend-ClusterNode


Suspend-ClusterResource


Test-Cluster


Update-ClusterIPResource


Update-ClusterVirtualMachineConfiguration


Help Documentation


This all sounds pretty good, right?  But what happens when you cannot figure out what command syntax is needed?  Well PowerShell has all the help documentation built into the PowerShell utility itself and even includes examples.  Please refer to this in-box help when you use PowerShell.  This is also an area where we would like your feedback – please let us know if there is anything which you cannot find or you believe was misleading.


To get full help for a cmdlet: Get-Help <cmdlet_name> -Full


Let’s take a look at the Add-ClusterDisk cmdlet:


PS C:\Users\symonp> Get-Help Add-ClusterDisk -Full


 


NAME


    Add-ClusterDisk


 


SYNOPSIS


    Make a new disk available for use in a failover cluster. The disk (LUN) must be exposed to all nodes in the failover cluster, and should not be exposed to any other servers.


 


SYNTAX


    Add-ClusterDisk [-InputObject] <ClusterDiskInfo[]> [-confirm] [-whatif] [<CommonParameters>]


 


DETAILED DESCRIPTION


    When adding a disk, make sure that the configuration of the storage allows the operating system to recognize and mount the disk as needed. The disk must be a basic disk (not a dynamic disk) and should not be exposed to servers outside the cluster. The cmdlet Get-ClusterAvailableDisk gets information about disks that you can add to the cluster.


 


PARAMETERS


    -InputObject <ClusterDiskInfo[]>


        Required?                    true


        Position?                    1


        Default value


        Accept pipeline input?       true (ByValue)


        Accept wildcard characters?  false


 


    -Confirm [<SwitchParameter>]


        Prompts you for confirmation before executing the command.


        Required?                    false


        Position?                    named


        Default value


        Accept pipeline input?       false


        Accept wildcard characters?  false


 


    -WhatIf [<SwitchParameter>]


        Describes what would happen if you executed the command without actually executing the command.


        Required?                    false


        Position?                    named


        Default value


        Accept pipeline input?       false


        Accept wildcard characters?  false


 


    <CommonParameters>


        This cmdlet supports the common parameters: -Verbose, -Debug,


        -ErrorAction, -ErrorVariable, -WarningAction, -WarningVariable,


        -OutBuffer and -OutVariable. For more information, type,


        “get-help about_commonparameters”.


 


INPUT TYPE


    Microsoft.FailoverClusters.PowerShell.ClusterDiskInfo


 


RETURN TYPE


    Microsoft.FailoverClusters.PowerShell.ClusterResource


 


NOTES


 


    ————————– EXAMPLE 1 ————————–


    C:\PS>Get-ClusterAvailableDisk | Add-ClusterDisk


 


    Name                State               Group               ResourceType


    —-                —–               —–               ————


    Cluster Disk 7      OnlinePending       Available Storage   Physical Disk


    Cluster Disk 8      OnlinePending       Available Storage   Physical Disk


 


    Description


    ———–


    This command adds to the cluster all disks that are ready for cluster use but have not been added to the cluster yet.


 


 


    ————————– EXAMPLE 2 ————————–


    C:\PS>Get-ClusterAvailableDisk | ?{ $_.ScsiAddress -eq 50331651 } | Add-ClusterDisk


 


    Name                State               Group               ResourceType


    —-                —–               —–               ————


    Cluster Disk 4      OnlinePending       Available Storage   Physical Disk


 


    Description


    ———–


    This command adds to the cluster a disk (with the given SCSI Address) that is ready for cluster use but has not been added to the cluster yet.


 


RELATED LINKS


    Test-Cluster


    Get-ClusterAvailableDisk


 


To get full help for all Failover Clustering cmdlets: Get-Command -Module FailoverClusters | %{ Get-Help $_.Name -Full }


Example


Here’s a sample PowerShell script where I set some variables, create a highly-available File Server, get some information about the cluster and resources, move the File Server, then delete it.


 


# Set some variables


$Node1 = “symonp-n1” ; $Node2 = “symonp-n2”


$FileServerGroupName = “symonp-fsBlog”


$FileServerDiskResourceName = “Cluster Disk 1”


 


# Create a highly available file server


Add-ClusterFileServerRole -Storage $FileServerDiskResourceName –Name $FileServerGroupName


 


# See which resources are in my group


Get-ClusterGroup $FileServerGroupName | Get-ClusterResource


 


# Get resources on a specific node


Get-ClusterNode $Node1 | Get-ClusterResource


Get-ClusterNode $Node2 | Get-ClusterResource


 


# Move file server cluster group to this node if it is on another node


Move-ClusterGroup -Group $FileServerGroupName -NodeName $env:computername


 


# Delete the highly available file server


Remove-ClusterGroup $FileServerGroupName -RemoveResources


 


 


Good luck with your PowerShell deployments and please send us your feedback!


 


Thanks,


Symon Perriman


Program Manager


Clustering & HA