In order to test some ClickOnce deployments today, I had to configure a new Web server to allow ClickOnce publishing through Visual Studio. ClickOnce deployments can be x-copied to a Web server, so not having that auto-publish capability is not the end of the world. However, after testing one of my ClickOnce applications 20 or so times in the span of a day, I grew well nigh sick and tired of copying over files.
This Microsoft TechNet article contained the special sauce I needed:
To add the FrontPage 2002 Server Extensions component
In the Windows Components Wizard select Application Server, and then click Details.
In the Application Server subcomponents list, select Internet Information Services, and then click Details.
In the IIS subcomponents list, select the check box for FrontPage 2002 Server Extensions, and then click OK to complete the Windows Components Wizard and install FrontPage 2002 Server Extensions. You might need your Windows Server 2003 installation CD to complete the installation.
Yeah...it's a little buried.