Email Address test cases

I've been on many teams in my whole testing career, and for some reason, I always end up getting assigned to validate the email address field.  So after numerous times of hunting down my old email test cases from previous team, I am giving up.  I thought I am just going to list out all of them here out on the internet.  I know that I probably going to have to refer to this list again and again in the future.  Might as well help benefit others like me.

Here is the list of valid and invalid email format which can be used for testing.  The list is not comprehensive by any means, and is probably missing a bunch of edge cases.  However, it provides enough coverage for the majority of the allowed/disallowed email address according to RFC 2822.

BTW, if anyone else would like to contribute more cases to this list, or spot errors (fingers crossed), please feel free to let me know and I'll make sure the list is up-to-date.

Valid Email address Reason Valid email Email contains dot in the address field Email contains dot with subdomain Plus sign is considered valid character
email@ Domain is valid IP address
email@[] Square bracket around IP address is considered valid
"email" Quotes around email is considered valid Digits in address are valid Dash in domain name is valid Underscore in the address field is valid .name is valid Top Level Domain name Dot in Top Level Domain name also considered valid (use as example here) Dash in address field is valid


Invalid Email address Reason
plainaddress Missing @ sign and domain
#@%^%#$@#$ Garbage Missing username
Joe Smith <> Encoded html within email is invalid Missing @ Two @ sign Leading dot in address is not allowed Trailing dot in address is not allowed Multiple dots
あいうえお Unicode char as address (Joe Smith) Text followed email is not allowed
email@domain Missing top level domain (.com/.net/.org/etc) Leading dash in front of domain is invalid
email@domain.web .web is not a valid top level domain
email@111.222.333.44444 Invalid IP format Multiple dot in the domain portion is invalid




List of people who help contribute to help solidify the cases


bernie halpin


Comments (45)

  1. gabriel.lozano-moran says:

    You forget 4 letter TLD’s. Like .name … I am saying this because often my email address does not get validated.

  2. Valid email address: — dash in username is valid (e.g. is valid for Windows Live ID).

  3. ch4n says:

    Many thanks to both of you @gabriel.lozano-moran and @bernie halpin

    I have added more valid cases into the list above.

    Social test casing at its best.  🙂

  4. Avdhut says:

    Hay Chan,

    Is there any validation for the limit of numbers of dots present in the email domain?



  5. ch4n says:

    Hi Avdhut,

    Thanks for pointing this out.  RFC 2822 defines the "dot-atom" to be single unit for the part that makes up the domain.  I am adding another case into the invalid cases to have this explicit.



  6. Ganesh Kumar. M says:

    It is very useful for me——- Thanks

  7. Steve says:

    I took over some unimpressive code that mostly worked. That said, the one thing that didn’t work were email inputs like this:


    That is, two valid email addresses in one email input; usually this is bad.

  8. Sandhya says:

    It was very useful especially the invalid ones.Thanks

  9. NANDHU says:

    Hi Pals,

    I am very very happy and impresses by seeing these comments and blogs regarding testing , and i would like to request you people to give a bit information regarding "URL" validations ,which can help me in my testing life.

    Email :



  10. ethies says:

    what above mentioned are common for all email promoters?

  11. Tester says:

    According to RFC 5322 Single quotes are valid for the first part of the email address, but many web applications fail this test even though it is quite common in corporate mail systems.

    ie.   Jim.O’

  12. rallyrace says:

    Can u give me calendar test case

  13. Pratiksha Jadhav says:

    Whether this Email ID : email@  

    Is valid?

    I've checked for the above one, it is showing INVALID email ID.

  14. Pratiksha Jadhav says:


    I've checked for this email id : あいうえお  – Unicode char as address

    If the DB is having Unicode char support, it is accepted.

    If I'm wrong correct me…



  15. Henry Ayoola says:

    Reason: 6-letter TLD is valid.

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  17. Shailendra says:    is a Invalid ID  !

  18. Danny Keton says:

    Useful and concise.  Thanks for sharing!

  19. Ramesh Yampalla says:

    It was really help for unknown persons…..Thanks a lot….

  20. email@111.222.333.44444 is invalid but for different reason than given says:

    The reasoning given in the table is that it is not a valid IP address – true, but it is valid domain address if you do not include TLD testing – 44444 is not a valid top level domain, otherwise this address would be valid.

  21. Vik says:

    some other invalid email ids'



  22. Rajesh says:

    Very nice test cases for valid and invalid Email Address

  23. Divya says:

    Is This Really Valid Email Address???????????

  24. Rick says:

    ".web is not a valid top level domain"

    it can be, and it might be in the future and its still a valid email address if you use it.

  25. Jules says:

    Your invalid table states: " (Joe Smith) Text followed email is not allowed" but I don't think this is right. RFC2822 defines an address as 'local-part "@" domain', where domain is defined as one of several forms including 'dot-atom', and dot-atom is defined as '[CFWS] dot-atom-text [CFWS]'.  CFWS is "comment folding white space", i.e. whitespace that may include newlines and comments.  A comment is '(' followed by any ASCII characters other than ')', then ')'.  The address you quote follows these rules.



    Reason : space not allowed.

    Thank you.

  27. Farrukh Shahzad Ahmed says:

    This is amazing sharing. Thank you very much

  28. Dhaval Panchal says:

    Can anyone tell me the Regular Expression validation to validate all above emails?

  29. Anil says:

    According to my email id containing between two words is also invalid


    Anil is invalid email id

    correct me if i am wrong.

  30. Denys says:

    The Internet email message format is now defined by RFC 5322…/RFC_2822

  31. Vishruth says:


    I guess  あいうえお is valid email id.

    Please refer the below link…/International_email…/rfc5335

  32. Gaurav says:

    It's really useful notes while testing any forms having email address.

  33. Shahid Algur says:

    Simply fabulous.  Thanx for providing such info.

  34. says:

    It is very useful for me both test case valid and invalid – Thank you

  35. Mohammed Zaheer Saddapali says:

    Regular Expression for the above scenario

    var re = /^w+([.-]?w+)*@w+([.-]?w+)*(.w{2,3})+$/;

  36. Edwin says:

    Any one can confirm is this is valid or invalid email address

  37. RGS says:

    Hi Chan ,

    I came across online email/domain validation URL are accepting and email ids like this combination. Even online E-commerce sites are accepting this id. if sign up with this id you can directly get signed up. Do you have any idea regarding this ?

  38. shubhra says:

    You can also add test cases below:

    Valid: email (comment)

    Valid: email@domain(comment).com

    Invalid: (

    Invalid:  email@domain).com



    Please correct me if I am wrong…

  39. Kiran says:

    Very nice test cases for valid and invalid Email Address

  40. Romel says:

    This is not valid email because RFC 3696…/rfc3696


    "Without quotes, local-parts may consist of any combination of

    alphabetic characters, digits, or any of the special characters

    ! # $ % & ' * + – / = ?  ^ _ ` . { | } ~

    period (".") may also appear, but may not be used to start or end the local part, nor may two or more consecutive periods appear."

    Correct, please, the table "Valid Email address".

  41. Nitish says:

    Can Comma (,) be used in email address?

  42. Nayana says:

    Is '*' valid in this emailid 'test*' ?

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