SharePoint 2013 introduces a new Geolocation field to help us integrate geolocation information and maps into our applications.
Here is a great introduction to it:
Unfortunately, we cannot create a new column based on the new geolocation type from SharePoint user interface. It has to be done from powershell or programmatically.
The powershell script below will create a geolocation site column for a site:
$weburl = "http://somesite"
$fieldXml = "<Field Type ='Geolocation' DisplayName='Location' />"
$web = get-spweb $weburl
$field = $web.Fields.AddFieldAsXml($fieldXml)