How a log file structure can affect database recovery time

We frequently come across situations where databases take a long time to recover. A common scenario is where the recovery process has to roll forward or back several transactions for a database after a SQL Server restart. However, you might also see one of the following symptoms which can result in databases take long time to recover (even if there are not many transactions in the log file).

1. Startup of database from restart of SQL Server or Backup/Restore or Attach/Detach or from auto close.

2. Log reader latency when a database is used in transactional replication: The reader thread of the log reader process is responsible for scanning the transaction log to identify which transactions need to be replicated.



This can happen if the log file has grown several times (usually as a result of very small auto-growth setting). As a result, the log will have several 1000 to several million VLFs (you can read more about VLFs in Transaction Log Physical Architecture). The first phase of recovering a database is called discovery where all the VLFs are scanned (in serial and single threaded fashion) before actual recovery starts. Since this happens much before the analysis phase, there are no messages indicating the progress in the SQL Server error log. Depending on the number of VLFs this initial discovery phase can take several hours even if there are no transactions in the log that need to be processed.



1. Error log from the time where a database is taking a long time to recover.

2. From Management Studio, execute DBCC LOGINFO(dbname)--for the database in question. This will have to be collected when the database is online. Note: This query can take a long time to run depending on number of VLFs. Use caution when running this on a live production server. You can use a script similar to the following to identify number of VLFs per log file.

NOTE: This script can cause a growth in tempdb if the database contains several million VLFs.

NOTE: Running DBCC LOGINFO against a database snapshot is not supported.

    FileId  INT NOT NULL,
    StartOffset BIGINT NOT NULL,
    Status INT NOT NULL,
    Parity INT NOT NULL,
    CreateLSN DECIMAL (25,0))



1. To confirm that you are running into this problem, check the error log for the database in recovery. The last message you will see for that database(while in recovery) in the log:

2008-06-26 10:29:20.48 spid58      Starting up database 'pubs'.

Once the pre-recovery has completed, you will see the following message which indicates that recovery has actually started reading the transactions. In this example, you can see that it took almost 9 minutes before the following message appeared.

2008-06-26 10:38:23.25 spid58      Analysis of database 'pubs' (12) is 37% complete (approximately 0 seconds remain). This is an informational message only. No user action is required.

2. DBCC LOGINFO(dbname) -- Since you will not be able to collect this during recovery of the database in question, run the script above as soon as recovery finishes to give you an idea of how many VLFs each log file has. For one of the databases that I recently came across, the log file had 1.9 million VLFs. (Hint: The number of rows returned by the DBCC command correlates to number of VLFs). The FileSize column indicates size of each VLF in bytes. Here is a sample output of DBCC LOGINFO:





Several fixes have been made to improve recovery time of databases from VLF issues. Apply all applicable fixes as listed in the following KB article:

2028436 Certain database operations take a very long duration to complete or encounter errors when the transaction log has numerous virtual log files


As an alternate solution, reduce the number of VLs using the steps listed below:

1. Run DBCC SHRINKFILE to reduce the ldf(s) to a small size, thereby reducing the number of VLFs.

NOTE: Running DBCC LOGINFO against a database snapshot is not supported.

2. Run DBCC LOGINFO(dbname) or the script above and make sure the number of VLFs is < 500-1000.

3. Expand(resize) the log file to the desired size using a single growth operation. This can be achieved by setting a new Initial Size for the ldf(s) in the Database Properties->Files->Database files section.

4. Run DBCC LOGINFO(dbname) or the script above and verify that the number of VLFs is still a small number. NOTE: Step 3 may create multiple VLFs even if you specify a large size. However, each VLF will be large.

5. Turn-off auto close option for the database. This can have adverse effects every time a database has to be started.

6. Backup the database.


We have also seen Database Mirroring affected by a large number of VLFs in the transaction log. See

979042 FIX: The principal database is not recovered if the database has a large number of virtual log files in SQL Server 2005


Here are some references regarding the topics discussed above:

949523 The latency of a transactional replication is high in SQL Server 2005 when the value of the "Initial Size" property and the value of the Autogrowth property are small

907511 How to use the DBCC SHRINKFILE statement to shrink the transaction log file in SQL Server 2005

317375            A transaction log grows unexpectedly or becomes full on a computer that is running SQL Server

On a related topic, our recommendation to customers is to not rely on auto-grow for sizing a data/log file.  Auto-grow should be used a fallback mechanism and a good database design takes into account capacity planning needs so that they are sized appropriately upfront according to application needs. Physical operations like growth/shrink during OLTP operations can be expensive and cause performance issues.  The articles below give guidelines on using these settings as well as some diagnostics/known issues as a result of auto-grow operations.

315512  Considerations for the "autogrow" and "autoshrink" settings in SQL Server

305635  PRB: A Timeout Occurs When a Database Is Automatically Expanding

822641  Additional diagnostics added to diagnose long-running or canceled database autogrow operations in SQL Server


Ajay Jagannathan | Microsoft SQL Server Escalation Services

Comments (7)

  1. Kendra Little says:

    My understanding is that for large log files, shrinking the file down and then growing it back out in one operation can result in a different problem wherein there are too few VLFs for the database. I believe that this can result in problems clearing the log. I have been following Kimberly Tripp’s recommendation to re-grow the log file in a given unit:

    Can you please comment on this?

  2. Suresh Kandoth says:

    If you experience this problem, please install the fix to prevent it in future:

    2455009 FIX: Slow performance when you recover a database if there are many VLFs inside the transaction log in SQL Server 2005, in SQL Server 2008 or in SQL Server 2008 R2

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