Small update on an earlier blog post by Warren around this PerformancePoint Services/Dashboard Designer issue.
After installing the October 2013 CU, or the December 2013 CU for SharePoint 2013, the Dashboard Designer fails to start for all users, and gives the error "Application cannot be started. Contact the application vendor."
The dashboard designer files were not signed correctly during the CU build process for the Oct 2013 CU and for the Dec 2013 CU.
This issue was fixed in Service Pack 1 for SharePoint 2013.
If you cannot install SharePoint 2013 Service Pack 1 in your environment, then this earlier blog post by Warren details the steps and files needed for a workaround that you can use until you can upgrade to SharePoint 2013 Service Pack 1.