So here you go, minding your own business, taking a stack trace, and then the world stops.
ChildEBP RetAddr 0019ec98 5654ef4e combase!CoInitializeEx+0x35 0019ecf8 5654e70b WINSPOOL!GetCurrentNetworkId+0x36 0019ed28 5654e58a WINSPOOL!InternalGetDefaultPrinter+0x8b 0019ed58 75953b77 WINSPOOL!GetDefaultPrinterW+0x5a 0019ed70 7594e6b8 comdlg32!PrintGetDefaultPrinterName+0x17 0019f1b8 7594e520 comdlg32!PrintBuildDevNames+0x60 0019f1d0 75951340 comdlg32!PrintReturnDefault+0x30 0019f628 759a03ab comdlg32!PrintDlgX+0x132 0019fae0 01804a8e comdlg32!PrintDlgA+0x5b 0019fd50 7686196c contoso+0x4a8e
The stack trace just gives up. The function in the Cnotoso DLL was compiled with frame pointer omission (FPO), which means that the ebp register is being used as a general-purpose register and does not point to the next frame deeper in the stack. And since we don't have symbols for Contoso, the debugger cannot consult the symbol table to get help with unwinding the stack one more level.
We'll have to build the stack trace manually. This is basically the same exercise on every architecture: You look at the code you're returning to, find its function prologue or epilogue, and use that information to unwind another frame.
The last known good stack frame was
Let's see what we have there:
0:000> dps 0019fae0 0019fae0 0019fd50 ← saved ebp 0019fae4 01804a8e contoso+0x4a8e ← return address 0019fae8 018083b0 contoso+0x83b0 ← argument to PrintDlgA 0019faec 0000000e 0019faf0 01803b8c contoso+0x3b8c 0019faf4 0019fd50 0019faf8 0000000e 0019fafc 0000000e 0019fb00 00200cce 0019fb04 00000112 0019fb08 0000f095 0019fb0c 0078006b
PrintDlgA function takes a single parameter,
and it uses the
__stdcall calling convention,
so we know that when
the stack pointer will be at
and we will have returned to the code at
We also see that the ebp register will have
To unwind a level, we need to disassemble at
01804a8e and look for the code that cleans up the stack
and returns to the previous function.
contoso+0x4a8e: 01804a8e 833dbc83800100 cmp dword ptr [contoso+0x83bc (018083bc)],0 01804a95 7509 jne contoso+0x4aa0 (01804aa0) 01804a97 b8ffffffff mov eax,0FFFFFFFFh 01804a9c 5e pop esi 01804a9d c3 ret
For the purpose of this exercise, we are just looking for
any code path that leads to a
We can assume conditional jumps are taken, or not taken,
based on whichever case will get us to a
Along the way to the
ret, we watch for instructions
that affect the esp register,
because we'll have to simulate them in our head.
In this case, we can pretend that the conditional jump is not taken,
and that leads us quickly to a
pop esi and a
So let's simulate those two operations.
Since our simulated esp register is at
pop esi pops the value
ret returns to
Since this was a simple
ret with no parameters,
there is no extra cleanup,
and the stack pointer is left pointing to
0019faec 0000000e ← saved esi 0019faf0 01803b8c contoso+0x3b8c ← return address 0019faf4 0019fd50 ← esp points here after ret 0019faf8 0000000e
Disassemble at the return address to see how to pop out another level.
contoso+0x3b8c: 01803b8c 8bd8 mov ebx,eax 01803b8e 0bdb or ebx,ebx 01803b90 7510 jne contoso+0x3ba2 (01803ba2) 01803b92 b8fbffffff mov eax,0FFFFFFFBh 01803b97 5d pop ebp ← saved ebp 01803b98 5f pop edi ← saved edi 01803b99 5e pop esi ← saved esi 01803b9a 5b pop ebx ← saved ebx 01803b9b 81c4e8000000 add esp,0E8h ← adjust esp 01803ba1 c3 ret ← return, no extra cleanup
Again, we pretend that the conditional jump is not taken,
and that leads us quickly to the function epilogue.
We pop four values off the stack,
0e8h to the esp register
before executing the
Let's simulate those operations on our stack.
0019faf4 0019fd50 ← saved ebp 0019faf8 0000000e ← saved edi 0019fafc 0000000e ← saved esi 0019fb00 00200cce ← saved ebx 0019fb04 00000112 ← esp points here after pop ebx
After popping ebx,
the code adds
0E8h to esp,
so let's ask the debugger to skip ahead
0:000> dps 0019fb04+e8 0019fbec 01801325 contoso+0x1325 ← return address 0019fbf0 0000000e ← esp points here after ret
01801325 0bc0 or eax,eax 01801327 0f8d74040000 jge contoso+0x17a1 (018017a1) 0180132d 83f8fd cmp eax,0FFFFFFFDh 01801330 0f846b040000 je contoso+0x17a1 (018017a1) 01801336 83f8fb cmp eax,0FFFFFFFBh 01801339 740d je contoso+0x1348 (01801348) 0180133b 83f8fc cmp eax,0FFFFFFFCh 0180133e 7410 je contoso+0x1350 (01801350)
Okay, we're not so lucky this time.
We don't see the end of the function right away.
The code does a bunch of stuff with the value returned
by this function,
but if the return value is nonnegative,
it jumps ahead to
I'm guessing that that jump forward will take us closer
to the end of the function,
so let's continue disassembling there.
018017a1 b801000000 mov eax,1 018017a6 5f pop edi 018017a7 5e pop esi 018017a8 81c404010000 add esp,104h 018017ae c20c00 ret 0Ch
My hunch paid off. We pop two registers, adjust esp, and then return with 12 bytes of extra cleanup.
0019fbf0 0000000e ← pop edi 0019fbf4 00000111 ← pop esi 0019fbf8 00000000 ← esp points here after pop esi 0:000> dps 0019fbf8+0x104 ← simulate "add esp, 104h" 0019fcfc 01801fea contoso+0x1fea ← return address 0019fd00 00200cce ← first four bytes of stack arguments 0019fd04 0000000e ← next four bytes of stack arguments 0019fd08 00000000 ← last four bytes of stack arguments 0019fd0c 00000111 ← esp points here after ret 0Ch
Okay, that was a little trickier because the
ret 0Ch means that after popping the return address,
we also have to add
0Ch to the esp register,
leaving it at
On to the next function.
contoso+0x1fea: 01801fea 0bc0 or eax,eax 01801fec 0f85d6010000 jne contoso+0x21c8 (018021c8) 01801ff2 8b44242c mov eax,dword ptr [esp+2Ch] 01801ff6 50 push eax 01801ff7 57 push edi 01801ff8 56 push esi 01801ff9 53 push ebx 01801ffa e831060000 call contoso+0x2630 (01802630) 01801fff 5f pop edi 01802000 5e pop esi 01802001 5b pop ebx 01802002 83c410 add esp,10h 01802005 c21000 ret 10h
This one is a little trickier,
for even though the
ret is in sight,
there's another function call in between.
I'm going to assume that the function at
ends with a
matching the 16 bytes of parameters pushed immediately
prior to the
This is generally a safe bet with the Microsoft C compiler,
which prefers to create its entire stack frame at function
entry and leave it alone until the function epilogue.
That means that the epilogue starts with the
and we can simulate those instructions as well.
0019fd0c 00000111 ← saved edi 0019fd10 00000000 ← saved esi 0019fd14 01801b90 contoso+0x1b90 ← saved ebx 0019fd18 00000070 \ 0019fd1c ffffffff \ skipped by 0019fd20 ffffffff / add esp, 10h 0019fd24 768617bb USER32!UserCallWinProcCheckWow+0x1fb / 0019fd28 7688311b USER32!_InternalCallWinProc+0x2b ← return address 0019fd2c 00200cce 0019fd30 00000111 0019fd34 0000000e 0019fd38 00000000 0019fd3c 00000000 ← esp points here after return
Hooray, we finally returned to a function we have symbols for!
That means we can use the
k= command to resume
our stack trace.
The parameters to the
k= command are
- The value to pretend is in ebp.
- The value to pretend is in esp.
- The value to pretend is in eip.
We will pretend that we are just about to execute the
ret 10h instruction.
From our calculations, therefore,
immediately after the
ret 10h instruction,
the stack pointer is at
the instruction pointer is at
and the ebp register has the value… um,
what's the value?
Look back through our notes for the most recent
0019faf4 0019fd50 ← saved ebp
Ah, there it is. Okay, let's go for it.
0:000> k=0019fd50 0019fd28 768617bb ChildEBP RetAddr 0019fd50 7686196c USER32!_InternalCallWinProc+0x2b 0019fe34 76860abe USER32!UserCallWinProcCheckWow+0x3ac 0019fea8 7687d750 USER32!DispatchMessageWorker+0x20e 0019feb0 018022d1 USER32!DispatchMessageA+0x10 0019ff70 765b60c9 contoso+0x22d1 ← UH-OH 0019ff80 77d43814 KERNEL32!BaseThreadInitThunk+0x19 0019ffdc 77d437e4 ntdll!__RtlUserThreadStart+0x2f 0019ffec 00000000 ntdll!_RtlUserThreadStart+0x1b
Okay, this seems to look good,
but there's that
contoso on the stack again.
However, this time, the debugger was able to walk the stack
past that function.
It could mean that the function was compiled with frame pointers
in which case we have a valid stack trace.
Or it could mean that the function was compiled with frame pointers
but the value in the ebp register happened to point
to another frame,
which is probably the next ebp-based frame.
Since debugging is an exercise in optimism, we'll assume that the stack trace is "good enough". It certainly looks reasonable. The ebp chain looks reasonable. The next frame is only slightly deeper on the stack. And even if there were some FPO functions in there, we can defer trying to tease them out until our investigation tells us that we need to do so.
So here's the stack trace we ended up with at the point we decided we had something "good enough":
ChildEBP RetAddr 0019ec98 5654ef4e combase!CoInitializeEx+0x35 0019ecf8 5654e70b WINSPOOL!GetCurrentNetworkId+0x36 0019ed28 5654e58a WINSPOOL!InternalGetDefaultPrinter+0x8b 0019ed58 75953b77 WINSPOOL!GetDefaultPrinterW+0x5a 0019ed70 7594e6b8 comdlg32!PrintGetDefaultPrinterName+0x17 0019f1b8 7594e520 comdlg32!PrintBuildDevNames+0x60 0019f1d0 75951340 comdlg32!PrintReturnDefault+0x30 0019f628 759a03ab comdlg32!PrintDlgX+0x132 0019fae0 01804a8e comdlg32!PrintDlgA+0x5b 0019fd50 7686196c contoso+0x4a8e 0019faf0 01803b8c contoso+0x3b8c \ we reconstructed these 0019fbec 01801325 contoso+0x1325 > three stack 0019fcfc 01801fea contoso+0x1fea / frames 0019fd50 7686196c USER32!_InternalCallWinProc+0x2b 0019fe34 76860abe USER32!UserCallWinProcCheckWow+0x3ac 0019fea8 7687d750 USER32!DispatchMessageWorker+0x20e 0019feb0 018022d1 USER32!DispatchMessageA+0x10 0019ff70 765b60c9 contoso+0x22d1 ← UH-OH 0019ff80 77d43814 KERNEL32!BaseThreadInitThunk+0x19 0019ffdc 77d437e4 ntdll!__RtlUserThreadStart+0x2f 0019ffec 00000000 ntdll!_RtlUserThreadStart+0x1b
Now, sure, digging out those three stack frames doesn't look that useful because we don't have any symbols for Contoso at all, but you may be in a case where you do have symbols for Contoso, but those symbols lack FPO information. In that case, reconstructing stack frames gives you a proper stack trace as if you had FPO information all along.
And those extra stack frames may be the difference between a "How did we get here?" and a "Oh, this is how we got here."
Next time, we'll look at some compiler code generation idioms.