How did real-mode Windows fix up jumps to functions that got discarded?

In a discussion of how real-mode Windows walked stacks, commenter Matt wonders about fixing jumps in the rest of the code to the discarded functions.

I noted in the original article that "there are multiple parts to the solution" and that stack-walking was just one piece. Today, we'll look at another piece: Inter-segment fixups.

Recall that real-mode Windows ran on an 8086 processor, a simple processor with no memory manager, no CPU privilege levels, and no concept of task switching. Memory management in real-mode Windows was handled manually by the real-mode kernel, and the way it managed memory was by loading code from disk on demand, and discarding code when under memory pressure. (It didn't discard data because it wouldn't know how to regenerate it, and it can't swap it out because there was no swap file.)

There were a few flags you could attach to a segment. Of interest for today's discussion are movable (and it was spelled without the "e") and discardable. If a segment was not movable (known as fixed), then it was loaded into memory and stayed there until the module was unloaded. If a segment was movable, then the memory manager was allowed to move it around when it needed to defragment memory in order to satisfy a large memory allocation. And if a segment was discardable, then it could even be evicted from memory to make room for other stuff.

Movable Discardable Meaning
No No Cannot be moved or discarded
No Yes (invalid combination)
Yes No Can be moved in memory
Yes Yes Can be moved or purged from memory

I'm going to combine the movable and discardable cases, since the effect is the same for the purpose of today's discussion, the difference being that with discardable memory, you also have the option of throwing the memory out entirely.

First of all, let's get the easy part out of the way. If you had an intra-segment call (calling a function in your own segment), then there was no work that needed to be done. Real-mode Windows always discarded full segments, so if your segment was running code, it was by definition present, and therefore any other code in that segment was also present. The hard part is the inter-segment calls.

As it happens, an old document on the 16-bit Windows executable file format gives you some insight into how things worked, if you sit down and puzzle it out hard enough.

Let's start with the GetProcAddress function. When you call GetProcAddress, the kernel needs to locate the address of the function inside the target module. The loader consults the Entry Table to find the function you're asking for. As you can see, there are three types of entries in the Entry Table. Unused entries (representing ordinals with no associated function), fixed segment entries, and movable segment entries. Obviously, if the match is in an unused entry, the return value is NULL because there is no such function. If the match is in a fixed entry, that's pretty easy too: Look up the segment number in the target module's segment list and combine it with the specified offset. Since the segment is fixed, you can just return the raw pointer directly, since the code will never move.

The tricky part is if the function is in a movable segment. If you look at the document, it says that "a moveable segment entry is 6 bytes long and has the following format." It starts with a byte of flags (not important here), a two-byte INT 3Fh instruction, a one-byte segment number, and the offset within the segment.

What's the deal with the INT 3Fh instruction? It seems rather pointless to specify that a file format requires some INT 3Fh instructions scattered here and there. Why not get rid of it to save some space in the file?

If you called GetProcAddress and the result was a function in a movable segment, the GetProcAddress didn't actually return the address of the target function. It returned the address of the INT 3Fh instruction! (Thankfully, the Entry Table is always a fixed segment, so we don't have to worry about the Entry Table itself being discarded.)

(Now you see why the file format includes these strange INT 3Fh instructions: The file format was designed to be loaded directly into memory. When the loader loads the entry table, it just slurps it into memory and bingo, it's ready to go, INT 3Fh instructions and all!)

Since GetProcAddress returned the address of the INT 3Fh instruction, calls to imported functions didn't actually go straight to the target. Instead, you called the INT 3Fh instruction, and it was the INT 3Fh handler which said, "Gosh, somebody is trying to call code in another segment. Is that segment loaded?" It took the return address of the interrupt and used it to locate the segment number and offset. If the segment in question was already in memory, then the handler jumped straight to the segment at the specified offset. You got the function call you wanted, just in a roundabout way.

If the segment wasn't loaded, then the INT 3Fh handler loaded it (which might trigger a round of discarding and consequent stack patching), then jumped to the newly-loaded segment at the specified offset. An even more roundabout function call.

Okay, so that's the case where a function pointer is obtained by calling GetProcAddress. But it turns out that a lot of stuff inside the kernel turns into GetProcAddress at the end of the day.

Suppose you have some code that calls a function in another segment within the same module. As we saw earlier, fixups are threaded through the code segment, and if you scroll down to the Per Segment Data section of that old document, you'll see a description of the way the relocation records are expressed. A call to a function to a segment within the same module requires an INTERNALREF fixup, and as you can see in the document, there are two types of INTERNALREF fixups, ones which refer to fixed segments and ones which refer to movable segments.

The easy case is a reference to a fixed segment. In that case, the kernel can just look up where it put that segment, add in the offset, and patch that address into the code segment. Since it's a fixed segment, the patch will never have to be revisited.

The hard case is a reference to a movable segment. In that case, you can see that the associated information in the fixup table is the "ordinal number index into [the] Entry Table."

Aha, you now realize that the Entry Table is more than just a list of your exported functions. It's also a list of all the functions in movable segments that are called from other segments. In a sense, these are "secret exports" in your module. (However, you can't get to them by GetProcAddress because GetProcAddress knows how to keep a secret.)

To fix up a reference to a function in a movable segment, the kernel calls the SecretGetProcAddress (not its real name) function, which as we saw before, returns not the actual function pointer but rather a pointer to the magic INT 3Fh in the Entry Table. It is that pointer which is patched into your code segment, so that when your code calls what it thinks is a function in another segment, it's really calling the Entry Table, which as we saw before, loads the code in the target segment if necessary before jumping to it.

Matt wrote, "If the kernel wants to discard that procedure, it has to find that jump address in my code, and redirect it to a page fault handler, so that when my process gets to it, it will call the procedure and fault the code back in. How does it find all of the references to that function across the program, so that it can patch them all up?" Now you know the answer: It finds all of those references because it already had to find them when applying fixups. It doesn't try to find them at discard time; it finds them when it loads your segment. (Exercise: Why doesn't it need to reapply fixups when a segment moves?)

All inter-segment function pointers were really pointers into the Entry Table. You passed a function pointer to be used as a callback? Not really; you really passed a pointer to your own Entry Table. You have an array of function pointers? Not really; you really have an array of pointers into your Entry Table. It wasn't actually hard for the kernel to find all of these because you had to declare them in your fixup table in the first place.

It is my understanding that the INT 3Fh trick came from the overlay manager which was included with the Microsoft C compiler. (The Zortech C compiler followed a similar model.)

Note: While the above discussion describes how things worked in principle, there are in fact a few places where the actual implementation differs from the description above, although not in any way that fundamentally affects the design.

For example, real-mode Windows did a bit of optimization in the INT 3Fh stubs. If the target segment was in memory, then it replaced the INT 3Fh instruction with a direct jmp xxxx:yyyy to the target, effectively precalculating the jump destination when a segment is loaded rather than performing the calculation each time a function in that segment is called.

By an amazing coincidence, the code sequence

    int 3fh
    db  entry_segment
    dw  entry_offset

is five bytes long, which is the exact length of a jmp xxxx:yyyy instruction. Phew, the patch just barely fits!

Comments (25)
  1. Damien says:

    Phew! I'll just read that as "Magic Happens"

  2. Adam Rosenfield says:

    I love these introspections into the workings of code from The Land Before I Started Programming.  Keep up the good work, Raymond.

    Have you ever considered opening a tip jar?  I would gladly donate, and I'm sure many others would too.

  3. Joshua says:

    Fascinating. Believe it or not this is the kind of technical discussion that draws me.

  4. Mike B says:

    I second Adam and Joshua's comments (except that I happened to be around for real mode Windows). I really appreciate these 'software archaeology' articles.

  5. Brian_EE says:

    Anyone remember "Windows 286"? I also think there was a "Windows 386" that pre-dates Win 3.1

    Might be an interesting to read about the progression from Win 1 to Win 3.0 via these two intermediary versions. I remember as a college student in about 1991/2 trying to install Win286 on a 386 machine and all it did was lock the machine up.

  6. Skyborne says:

    @hacksoncode – I think that's covered in the link in this article about walking the stack.

  7. Joe says:

    @Brian EE

    I installed Win/286 on a 386 many times and it worked just fine.  so there was something else going on! :)

  8. hacksoncode says:

    Great, so now we know how to *call* a function in a movable segment. How did it deal with *returns* into segments that are movable and/or discardable?

  9. Matt says:

    Thanks for providing such an in-depth answer.  Yet another piece of arcane brilliance from the Win16 days of yore!

    That jump table concept seems very similar to the PLT/GOT tables that are used by ELF files on *nix systems (although they're used only for dynamic module linking–they have the luxury of relying on the kernel to do page discarding!)

  10. alegr1 says:

    Matt, I'll tell you a secret. Windows PE-format executables also use jump tables.

  11. Jonathamn Wilson says:

    Always good to hear some stories about how things used to work.

  12. Neil says:

    Presumably Windows 286 and later simply fixed up the movable (which is a valid spelling) entry table with jmp selector:offset instructions once and for all.

    I do wonder why the entry table didn't have the offset in the same position that it would have been for use with the jump instruction though.

  13. Marcel Kilgus says:


    Maybe because that's impossible anyway? It would have to be in the middle of the INT 3Fh instruction.

  14. cheong00 says:

    I think Win3.0 is the last version that supports all 3 modes: real mode, standard mode (286 mode) and 386 enhanced mode. The switch to ask Windows enter real mode is removed on Win3.1. My copy of Win3.1 served me on 286 and 486DX2-66 machine.

    Didn't try to run standard mode on 486 thorugh… I remember that protected mode didn't support instruction to go back to real mode, so if you start something that enters protected mode (like the DOSShell) and want to run something that must start in real mode (like some software that comes with it's own memory manager that's not compatable) later, you have to reboot.

  15. Yuhong Bao says:

    "I remember that protected mode didn't support instruction to go back to real mode, so if you start something that enters protected mode (like the DOSShell) and want to run something that must start in real mode (like some software that comes with it's own memory manager that's not compatable) later, you have to reboot."

    Or at least reset the processor. PC/AT compatibles has built-in support for this in the hardware and BIOS, which most software that needed to do this used, like Win3.x and OS/2 1.x. The 386 solved this and added an virtual 8086 mode.

  16. David Walker says:

    I think "movable" is the preferred spelling, although "moveable" seems more logical.  I also want to put two h's in threshold, which seems more logical than one h.  But of course, spelling in this language is not always logical.

  17. lefty says:


    I think that the MS-DOS and 16-bit Windows source code might be version controlled on the old server:…/9317706.aspx

  18. You know, it would be really awesome if Microsoft would publicly publish these old versions of their software, for free download, for posterity: all Windows <= 3.x, DOS, and associated documentation.  **And then post the SDKs for the above.**  For example, the SDK/compilers necessary to write software for Windows 1.x, and 2.x, etc.

    I've tracked down old versions of Windows/DOS on the Internet – that's not hard to do (legal? maybe not, but what's a collector to do?).  SDKs/compilers are much harder to come by, it seems.  (Why do I find it fascinating to collect these old things?  I don't know…!)

    I would hope they haven't lost the source code.  It's such an important part of company history.  I would hope it isn't rotting on some floppy disks in some closet…

  19. Joshua says:

    I agree on one part of that. The old SDK and documentation would come in handy from time to time and asking for very big $$$ for extended support for what already exists in the archives does not seem reasonable to me.

  20. Yuhong Bao says:

    @lefty: I don't think so.

  21. cheong00 says:

    @JamesJohnson: Since MSDOS 6.0 and 6.22 is still available to be downloaded as part of MSDN Subscription (i.e.: Technically Microsoft is still selling it as part of a service), I'll remind you that if Microsoft intend to, they can claim considerable amount of fine from you. So better not saying something like that in the public.

    I think they still keep DOS available because up until a few years ago, DOS is still the way people preferred to access bare metal.

  22. Yuhong Bao says:

    IMO Intel should have released the 386SX years earlier given the problems of the 286.

  23. @cheong00: I actually had an MSDN Universal academic subscription at the time – it was several years ago.  The trouble was that DOS 6 and Windows 3.1 was the oldest available, and I wanted to learn what the older stuff was like.  I highly doubt they have put anything older up in the last several years.  And I've owned full versions of Visual Studio and Microsoft Office, as well.  One could argue I was just downgrading the license, since I was just experimenting in a virtual machine.  Unfortunately all I ever found was end-user software as I recall…  (Like I said… what was the SDK for developing Windows 1.0 or 2.0 apps in C, for example? and where would one find it?)

    Really – let's be realistic.  How much money did Microsoft lose on me from my learning more about Microsoft products in this way?

    That mentality is what's putting us into the new "digital dark age" that one sometimes reads about.  In another 20 years you'll be hard-pressed to find any of this stuff.  It's sad.

  24. ender says:

    @JamesJonhson: google for beta and archive, and you just might find what you're looking for.

  25. Neil says:

    @Marcel Kilgus: Ah yes, I'd forgotten that the 3F byte would go there.

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