Debug Fundamentals Exercise 3: Calling conventions


Today’s exercise will focus on x86 function calling conventions.  The calling convention of a function describes the following:


·         The order in which parameters are passed

·         Where parameters are placed (pushed on the stack or placed in registers)

·         Whether the caller or the callee is responsible for unwinding the stack on return


While debugging, an understanding of calling conventions is helpful when you need to determine why certain values are placed in registers or on the stack before a function call.


Standard x86 calling convention on Windows:



Unwinds stack

Win32 (Stdcall)

pushed onto stack from right to left


Native C++ (Thiscall)

pushed onto stack from right to left, "this" pointer in ecx


COM (Stdcall for C++)

pushed onto stack from right to left, then "this" is pushed



arg1 in ecx, arg2 in edx, remaining args pushed onto stack from right to left



pushed onto stack from right to left





Below are calls to 5 functions.  Each function takes two DWORD parameters.  Based on the code that calls each function, identify the calling convention used.


// Call to Function1

01002ffe 8b08            mov     ecx,dword ptr [eax]

01003000 53              push    ebx

01003001 687c2c0001      push    offset 01002c7c

01003006 50              push    eax

01003007 ff11            call    dword ptr [ecx]


// Call to Function2

01002490 50              push    eax

01002491 688c110001      push    offset 0100118c

01002496 e82a020000      call    dbgex4!Function2 (010026c5)

0100249b 59              pop     ecx

0100249c 59              pop     ecx


// Call to Function3

0100248e 8bd0            mov     edx,eax

01002490 8bcf            mov     ecx,edi

01002492 e8aeffffff      call    dbgex4!Function3 (01002445)


// Call to Function4

00413586 8b450c          mov     eax,dword ptr [ebp+0Ch]

00413589 50              push    eax

0041358a 8b4d08          mov     ecx,dword ptr [ebp+8]

0041358d 51              push    ecx

0041358e 8b4dec          mov     ecx,dword ptr [ebp-14h]

00413591 e86fdfffff      call    dbgex4!Function4 (00411505)


// Call to Function5

01003540 56              push    esi

01003541 8d85d4f9ffff    lea     eax,[ebp-62Ch]

01003547 50              push    eax

01003548 ff1558100001    call    dbgex4!Function5 (01001058)]



Bonus: describe the calling convention used for x64.



[Update: our answer. Posted 12/18/2008]


Function1 - COM (Stdcall for C++)


Function2 - cdecl


Function3 - fastcall


Function4 - Native C++ (Thiscall)


Function5 - Win32 (Stdcall)



Bonus: describe the calling convention used for x64:


Comments (19)

  1. rudrac says:

    Call to Function1 : COM (Stdcall for C++)

    Call to Function2 : Cdecl

    Call to Function3 : Fastcall

    Call to Function4 : Native C++ (Thiscall)

    Call to Function5 : Win32 (Stdcall)


  2. jean says:

    function 1 => COM

    function 2 => cdecl

    function 3 => fastcall

    function 4 => thiscall

    function 5 => stdcall

  3. sean says:

    function1 – COM (3 pushes)

    function2 – Cdecl (2 pops)

    function3 – fastcall (no pushes)

    function4 – C++ stdcall (2 pushes & mov ecx)

    function5 – Win32 stdcall (2 pushes, no ecx)

  4. Moshe Levi says:

    Function1 – StdCall

    Function2 – Cdecl

    Function3 – FastCall

    Function4 – ThisCall

    Function5 – StdCall (COM if ebp-62Ch holds ‘this’)

    Thank you very much again. keep it going!


  5. Neil says:

    1:  COM

    2:  Cdecl

    3:  Fastcall

    4:  Native C++

    5:  Win32


  6. pingpong says:

    1: COM

    2: cdecl

    3: fastcall

    4: thiscall

    5: stdcall

  7. molotov says:

    Function1 uses "COM (Stdcall for C++)"

    Function2 uses "Cdecl"

    Function3 uses "Fastcall"

    Function4 uses "Native C++ (Thiscall)"

    Function5 uses "Win32 (Stdcall)"

    x64 uses the fastcall calling convention – registers are used for the first four args (rcx, rdx, r8, r9), and the stack is used for additional args.

  8. kirchner says:

    Function 1 is COM (Stdcall for C++)

    Function 2 is Cdecl

    Function 3 is Fastcall

    Function 4 is Native C++ (Thiscall)

    Function 5 is Win32 (Stdcall)

  9. zhzhtst says:


    COM (Stdcall for C++)





    Microsoft __fastcall (not Borland)





  10. Jay says:

    Function1 – COM

    Function2 – Cdecl

    Function3 – FastCall

    Function4 – C++

    Function5 – stdcall

  11. Infro says:

    Com, Cdecl, Fastcall, stdcall, thiscall

    Also, it should be noted that in X64, fast call uses rcx(r6c), rdx(r7x), r8x, r9x, then the stack. Not to mention that how some view register preservation is/should be part of calling conventions.

  12. Infro says:

    Too Bad we can’t edit comments, oh well.


    COM, CDelc, FastCall, Thiscall, StdCall

  13. ibganev says:

    fn1 = COM

    fn2 = Cdecl

    fn3 = fastcall

    fn4 = Native C++

    fn5 = Win32

    Bonus: rcx = arg1, rdx = arg2, r8 = arg3, r9 = arg4, rest pushed on stack right to left. Stack spill space always reserved for the parameters passed through registers.

  14. George Luiz Bittencourt says:


    My answers are:

    1 – COM (Stdcall for C++)

    2 – Cdecl

    3 – Fastcall

    4 – Native C++ (Thiscall)

    5 – Win32 (Stdcall)

    The x64 calling convention passes the first four parameters in registers and the remaining parameters are pushed onto stack.


  15. calin_iaru says:

    Function1  – COM

    Function2  – cdecl

    Function3  – fastcall

    Function4  – thiscall

    Function5  – stdcall

    On x64, the parameters are passed to rcx, rdx, r8, r9 and then the stack as in rsp+8, rsp+0x10, and so on.

    rcx stores the this pointer where available.

  16. Dragos Cantemir says:

    Function1 – COM

    Function2 – cdecl

    Function3 – fastcall

    Function4 – thiscall

    Function5 – stdcall

  17. Nebruin says:

    Function 1 is com

    Function 2 is cdecl

    Function 3 is fastcall

    Function 4 is win32

    Function 5 is Native c++

  18. sciguy says:

    From what I can gather:

    Function1 is Stdcall

    Function2 is Cdecl

    Function3 is Fastcall

    Function4 is Thiscall

    Function5 is COM (Stdcall for C++)

    x64 uses fastcall… where the integer and pointer arguments are pushed into RCX, RDX, R8 and R9 and the floating point args are pushed into the first four MMX registers… the rest of the arguments are pushed onto the stack.

  19. sotab says:

    This may be a common knowledge, but I couldn’t find good explanation about this.

    When arguments are pushed onto a stack, why are they first mov to registers?

    mov     eax,dword ptr [ebp+0Ch]

    push    eax

    Is this a rule?

    Will push dword ptr [ebp+0Ch] work the same?

    [Good question. Pushing the address from memory directly will result in the same logical goal (the value is pushed onto the stack), but the steps the processor takes to get there will be different. At build time the compiler made the choice to move to a register and then push.]
Skip to main content