(From Windows Azure team blog on MSDN):
The Windows Azure HPC Scheduler includes modules and features that enable you to launch and manage high-performance computing (HPC) applications and other parallel workloads within a Windows Azure service. The scheduler supports parallel computational tasks such as parametric sweeps, Message Passing Interface (MPI) processes, and service-oriented architecture (SOA) requests across your computing resources in Windows Azure.
With the Windows Azure HPC Scheduler SDK, developers can create Windows Azure deployments that support scalable, compute-intensive, parallel applications. This SDK provides the following features:
- Built-in job scheduling and resource management.
- Runtime support for MPI, SOA, and LINQ to HPC applications.
- Web-based job submission interfaces.
- Persistent state management of job queue and resource configuration.
Applications that are based on the APIs and job submission interfaces supported on-premises in Microsoft HPC Pack 2008 R2 can use very similar interfaces in the Windows Azure HPC Scheduler