When customers move into the cloud, they tend to mimic their setup on-prem. Not a bad thing, but when it comes to blocking internet access for servers this can create some unusual problems.
If you are using network security groups (NSGs), user defined routing (UDR), or forced-tunneling be sure to put in an exception for your Azure data center IP ranges, as lack of connectivity will impact many services including these:
- VM Extensions see https://blogs.msdn.microsoft.com/mast/2016/04/27/vm-stuck-in-updating-when-nsg-rule-restricts-outbound-internet-connectivity/
- Azure Backup see https://azure.microsoft.com/en-us/documentation/articles/backup-azure-vms-prepare/#network-connectivity
- OMS Agent/Extension see https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/log-analytics/log-analytics-proxy-firewall#configure-settings-with-the-microsoft-monitoring-agent
Update 16 Aug 2018 - The use of service endpoints will limit the damage of blocking internet access. Ensure all services you use/require are covered by service endpoints before blocking internet access. https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/virtual-network/virtual-network-service-endpoints-overview