The Chart is the Message

Did you know that someone once wrote a book entitled How to Lie With Charts? It’s true; check it out. The book was a tongue-in-cheek welcome gift when I took over Excel program management. Truth be told, I haven’t read it. It could be quite good; the reviews on would suggest that it is. Maybe after we’ve shipped Office 2008 I’ll find time to give it a once over. Then again, a small mountain of books piled up over the last few years. Reading about charts may not be that high on my list after Macworld!

The reason I write about it today is that the book (which occupies a prominent spot on my shelf) subversively illuminates an Office pillar: communication. I think we take charts for granted; pies and columns and bars have woven themselves into our pop culture fabric. We see them in newspapers, magazines, and television. Charts help us make important decisions, they can make us laugh, and they inspire us to think about things differently. Like any medium, charts can be used to misinform or illuminate. People choose the message; charts are but one way to express a point.

I’m a designer by experience, so I “get” charts. A line going up versus down speaks volumes to me. I must have created thousands of charts over the twenty years I’ve used Mac Excel (but who really tracks exact numbers for that kind of thing; not me, I suppose). I fancied myself something of an expert when it came to chart creation. I knew how to manipulate Office to create what I then thought to be great looking results. Heck, for years the only way you could create a chart with transparent fills was to use Mac Excel! I didn’t think we had room to improve, at least not in any significant way.

In 2004, when I read that Windows Office 2007 was revamping their charting engine, the skeptic in me snickered. They’d catch up with us at best, I thought. Maybe they’d finally be able to do transparency! Then I saw a few chart examples from our friends across the way. Photoshop mockups, I muttered to myself, nothing more. But they kept at it and darned if I wasn’t a fool for making silly assumptions. The fact is, the new charts in Office 2007 look great.

Fast forward to the present day. Over the last few years we’ve rebuilt our charting engine from the ground up. Every dialog, button, and pixel has been reborn. Charts looked great in Mac Office 2004. In Mac Office 2008 they look spectacular! Check it out – here’s a chart from Excel 2004:

Office 2004 Chart 

I spent a lot of time getting that chart to look a certain way, and I wasn’t born with that skill. Now, the same chart in Excel 2008:

Office 2008 Chart 

To be fair, the angle is slightly different, but you get the effect (and the above shot is from a recent build of Excel 2008). I think the difference is incredible – and humbling. The Windows Office team did great work, and our top-notch engineering team brought it to the Mac (and, soon, to you).

Of course, this wasn’t a simple job of porting code. Sure, we share some things in common with our Windows Office counterparts. That’s important, because you want your chart layout to look the same on Mac and Windows. But Mac Office leverages Apple’s Quartz APIs to render breathtaking results – as you can plainly see, above.

Better still, we’re still using the Mac Office user interface Mac users are familiar with. For starters, putting a chart in any Office file is a whole lot easier. You can pick from a variety of charts in the Elements Gallery, which is available in Word, PowerPoint, and Excel:

Chart UI 

Once you do that, all the major formatting controls are a mouse-click away in the Formatting Palette. If you prefer, deeper control is available through formatting dialogs. And, with Office 2008, all formatting can be done directly inside Word or PowerPoint in addition to Excel. This will let you format the chart in the file you’re working on, as opposed to switching back and forth from app to app. Really, all you need Excel for is to change the data itself. I’m pretty happy with it, and I suspect many of you will be, too.

Of course, we’re still not done. It’s been a long road to get to the point we’re at now. I guess it’s not surprising that rebuilding a major component of Office would be rather hard. Even so, we’ve got an incredible team of smart people working hard every day. I know, because I get questions from them all the time! Charts are full of twists, turns, and special cases. Working on this has been a lot of fun, despite some really (really) long days.

I walked into this challenge naively assuming I knew most everything about charting. Over time I've come to see that no communication tool is simple, especially one that conveys numerical data visually in so many different ways. Maybe that’s obvious to some, but it was a lesson in humility for me. A chart isn’t a picture it’s a language. That’s why a book can teach people how to lie with them. The grammar of charts is what allows comedians to be funny and thinkers to make decisions. In the end, I understand that charts are a phenomenally powerful medium. I can’t wait to see your ideas!

Comments (22)
  1. Quintius says:


    Sorry, not even remotely close.

    Besides which, I think the Excel 2004 version is easier to read.

  2. why don't you get it? says:

    exchange client

  3. "The difference is incredible – and humbling" you say. Yes, the difference IS incredible. In the 2004 chart, you can actually see what the yellow curve is doing (albeit barely). In the 2008 chart, you can’t see the dips in the yellow curve any more. So if the goal of the chart is to hide the data, then 2008 is surely an improvement over 2004. Downright humbling.

  4. Robert Mohns says:

    Have you all considered making a chart option with "fatter" bars?  I’ve found that I really, really like the bar charts created by Apple’s Numbers — the fat bars feel much easier to read than Excel’s narrow bars (which are often dwarfed by the inter-bar gaps).

    I’ve used both Excel and Numbers to create charts for publication in my articles, and while Excel’s data manipulation is undoubtedly richer, Numbers creates more aesthetically pleasing charts to my eye.

    While it’s certainly far too late to create a fatter bar style for Office ’08, you might want to consider it for an update at some point.

    Compare and contrast the charts in my SoftRAID review:

    ….with the charts in my AirPort Extreme 802.11n review:

    …and the Mac Pro Follow-up:

  5. 60six says:


    really looking forward to Office 2008 like you wouldn’t believe, BUT

    Can you put me out of my misery and tell me that entourage will be an acceptable exchange email client? Any serious mac user knows that this program is little more than a toy in comparison with Outlook 2003/07 due to its slowness, bad local database management, un-useable calendar (for ea’s pa’s and anyone who looks after someone elses calendar), and tendancy to die, resorting to it only working after a database rebuild, which is nothing more than a delete and recover from the server which when someone has over 20,000+ emails in their inbox can take an eternity. Using Groupcal by Snerdware only makes things worse as this is just too buggy to be a serious help.

    I am a head of IT support which is primarily macs and entourage does not beat outlook web access, which I find odd as it is only a web application, but beats entourage hands down in all the points I mentioned above.

    I don’t care about how pretty it will be, or how much you want to talk about the ‘crazy ones’ although I do find this entertaining – for me to perform a better service to my users and my clients I have to ask you, as sincerely as I can, will entourage be anywhere near as business like and efficient as outlook 2003 is? It can even crash as much as ol2003, as long as it more bearable than the bane of my email support life, Entourage 2004.

    Recently, an EA (exec. assistant) for a very high-up person in the company was given entourage on a mac in place of her old Pentium 4 Celeron with Outlook 2003.

    She threatened to leave whilst in floods of tears as entourage made her job impossible to do and made her look like a rookie EA and we, as a primarily a mac-based company had to get her another PC, her image of macs and all good things apple totally ruined by the simple fact that there is ….

    no business-critical email client which gels with an exchange server for a mac.

    My hopes and dreams rest with you.

    Please let me know.

  6. Jake says:

    I thought it was just me…

    I, too, thought the new version of the chart was less defined with faded colors and, thus, more difficult to read than the "old" version.

    I’m hoping that maybe the graphics got switched because if that’s considered an improved look…

  7. I was in Excel 2007 all day messing with probability and cause for winning the lottery next week. I decided to try out the transparency effects one more time to see if it works, I just never seem to get it from the beta 1 release of Excel 2007 since I made a suggestion during the Office 11 for Windows beta to make chart transparency be an option. I tried it this evening and after messing around, I got it to work! Its really a beautiful feature.

    For Office Excel 2007 users, do the following, because its so hidden and hard to find and there are multiple Transparency options that make it confusing to find and do.

    1. Select the data you want to make in to the chart.

    2. Select "Insert" tab

    3. Under the Charts gallery, click the Area chart icon.

    4. Click 3D-Area

    5. Click the Move Chart button to move the chart into its own sheet, makes manipulating much better.

    6. click an individual 3D-Area, right click "Format Data series"

    7. Click Fill from the Series Option

    8. Under Fill in the right pane, choose "Solid"

    9. Choose desired color and use the slider to adjust the intensity of the transparency.

    10. Select each 3D Area and apply 6 – 9 instructions for the rest.

    Note, you don’t have to close "Format Data Series" dialog.  

  8. craigontour says:

    Charts are surely less than 1% use of people’s real use of Office apps. As someone else asks, can we see Entourage acting like a true Exchange client please.

    Then I’ll get excited.

  9. Ric Davis says:

    In the example you give, with the 2004 version of the chart, it’s possible to follow the rearmost yellow chart where it’s dipping behind the middle green chart.

    This isn’t the case in the 2008 version.

    It may look prettier, but it is worse at conveying information. I’m rather concerned that this is a good example that you chose to show off.

  10. Amdy K says:

    Frankly, I am starting to worry.

    Back in July (July 11th, to be exact) a posting on MacMojo clearly staed that they know that what we want is information on Entourage/Exchange. Three months on, barely any new information.

    Which leads me to wonder as to why not?

    Part of me wonder if there’s a release-schedule, whether official or voluntary, as to what info gets released when. But if so, even a "we aren’t allowed to (or don’t want to) tell you about yet" would be a slight improvement. At the very least it would give the impression that our requests (and pleading/begging/etc) for information are being noted.

    Either that or they have the answer and it’s not what we want to hear. But even so, even if Entourage doesn’t have the features we want/need, we need to know the details soon. And people have made genuinely rational reasons as to why the information really needs to be available as soon as possible.

    I just don’t know. There’s no way they can’t know what we’re waiting to hear about. So there’s obviously a reason that it’s not been announced yet.

    And that worries me.

  11. Patrick Wang says:


    Why does Microsoft continue to push the use of 3-D charts? They look nice but they usually serve no purpose other than eye candy or to obfuscate data. At this 3-D perspective, I can’t make out any meaningful data from the graphs. What’s the top value of the red area at point 9? Is that higher or lower than the top value of the yellow area at the same point? If you want to improve the charting abilities of Excel, set the defaults so that it improves data presentation (2-D, solid bars, complementary colors). It frustrates me to no end when I get an Excel graph or PowerPoint deck and all the charts are useless because they’re in 3-D and I can’t draw any useful conclusions or compare any data points.

    I respect what you guys are trying to do to improve Excel but please have your designers read the Edward Tufte books. Take a look at iWork Numbers – their charting defaults are 2-D, opaque, solid, complementary-colored bars. That’s what Excel should be doing, not ooo-pretty charts.

  12. Patrick, if you have used 3D-Charts in Excel, you will no there is the option to interact and rotate your 3D-Chart. You can do that with 2D. So it gives the user perspective when it comes dealing with data from a trend point of view, especially if its dynamically being updated.

  13. Zach says:

    @Patrick Wang

    I’ll second the Edward Tufte recommendation, and will note a bitter irony: Stuart spoke about the book "How to Lie with Charts" in the beginning of this post, and noted that it was sitting in his office unread.  I don’t think that Stuart *needs* to read that book – the new Excel 2008 graph on this page is an excellent example of how to build a lying chart!

    First off, both charts are rendered in perspective (a bad thing), but the perspective in the 2008 chart is greatly exaggerated over the slight perspective in the 2004 chart.  Quick-and-dirty measurements of the image suggest that a value plotted at the "near" end of the graph will appear almost 30% bigger than the same value plotted at the "far" end of the graph, immediately distorting any historical trends or comparisons – if this is a 12-month chart, the latest data points will always appear larger than the oldest.

    Secondly, as Patrick and others have pointed out, the use of 3D graphics and the shading imposed by transparency makes it difficult to compare the red, yellow, and green series to each other, a problem further confused by the perspective.  I challenge anyone without the source spreadsheet to tell me the values for the yellow line at points 2, 3, 4, and 5.

    Finally, there’s the issue of presentation efficiency.  As rendered here, that last chart is 1053×754 pixels in size – nearly the size of a full slide if you’re using a computer projector.  And yet, all that’s there is a poor representation of 36 floating point numbers.  A standard 2D graph could either convey the same data more compactly, or (better yet) use the available space to show more data.

    The bottom line is that, *out of the box*, Excel is simply not an adequate tool for anyone who needs to make serious decisions about serious data.  Excel *can* be a quite effective tool in the hands of a skilled user, but Excel has always defaulted to preferring "pretty" over "accurate" or "useful."  Case in point: Excel 2007’s data bars, which actively graph data values incorrectly in order to get a more attractive, but invalid, result.  Case in point: The continuing absence of a basic box-and-whiskers plot from Excel.  Case in point: Round-off errors in Excel’s STDEV function.  (Try taking the standard deviation of a series of very large numbers that vary by a small amount – the result will be exactly 0).

    As such, my only concern with Excel charts is whether or not it’s become easier to turn off the extra visual cruft that Excel adds and get down to doing real work.  I’ll grudgingly accept that Excel lies by default – as long as I can make it tell the truth, I’m happy.

    @Amdy K:

    I share the worry, amplified by today’s announcement that the MacBU is heading for product lockdown and a gold master.  Since the MacBU knows exactly what’s going to be in Entourage at this point, it seems the only reason to delay any announcements is to forestall bad news.

    It’s 99 days until Office 2008 ships.  Do you know where your Exchange support is?

  14. Anon says:

    I really think you should read that book.

    From a summary of the very book you cite:

    How to Lie with Charts:

    2. Make everything 3D

    "When you get around to selecting a chart type in PowerPoint, if you want to mislead or distort, choose dimensional pies or bars. It’s virtually impossible to make a 3D chart that doesn’t give a wrong impression. In a 3D pie chart, the slice with the thickest edge will always seem larger than its true percentage. (Chapter 2 will tell you why.) In a 3D bar chart, it’s a challenge to find a rotation at which the short bars are still visible but the tall bars aren’t distorted by the perspective. Judging the heights of bars in a perspective view is a real challenge. So your audience can’t reliably estimate values (do visual take-offs) from your dimensional bars. (See Chapter 4.) Unfortunately, 3D bars are now the staple of the wildly popular “dashboard” displays of executive information systems. Managers are actually making operational and strategic decisions based on this type of reporting. It’s scary."

  15. GaryP says:

    3D charts are truly tools of Evil. Not evil, but Evil with a capital "E" and said in the same sort of sentence as "the fru-its of the De-vil." They look nice but (as has been said already) hide data and I’ve only seen them used in business to make a bad situation look better.

  16. Mister Mac says:

    This is all well and good, but I will gladly trade in every fancy colorful chart and auto newsletter and god knows what else for a simple Universal binary conversion of the Exchange client that shipped with Office 98.

  17. Dan C says:

    Will Mac Excel 2008 be on par with Windows Excel for pivot tables, charting from pivots, & other useful deep features of this sort?

  18. An economist says:

    I am also disturbed by the hyping of misleading 3D effects as desirable features of graphs.

    Have a look at some scientific journals, financial newspapers and magazines, or the publications of central banks. These folks need to use charts every day, and they are not trying to obsfucate the message (or, they shouldn’t be). Look at their styles. Maybe some gridlines, maybe some backgrounds, but generally, less is more for them. Tufte, not chart-junk. Look at some of the things that Mathematica 6 can do.

    There are so many things that should have been in Excel for years, but aren’t. So we resort to custom package, specialist but flaky software, or just put up with the dreck Excel generates as the default — a lot of academics do this.

    Here are some things Excel charts need to be considered ready for use in professional settings.

    * Variable-width tick marks

    * Date labels that span a year. (e.g. daily data, tick marks between Dec 31 and Jan 1, and a year label centered on the space between them).

    * Export to EPS and other publication quality formats

    * Ability to set certain dimensions (eg the width and height of the plot area) numerically and save this in templates.

    * Axes labels inside as well as outside the text

    * MULTIPLE PANELS on a single chart

    * Line charts should have more than three thickness options; customisable dashes would be nice too.

    * Better color selection / palette setting, including CMYK colour models.

    The problem is that MS has a mental model of chart users as being business types who are only showing three data points in a PowerPoint anyway. So 3D snazz is needed to distract from the pedestrian nature of their message. But scientists and economists and financial professionals are using charts for data visualization, where Excel doesn’t cut it — certainly not for publication-quality work.

    Maybe the business types are the majority of your users, but it wouldn’t surprise me if the scientists etc account for the majority of the charts created by your users.

  19. Jon Peltier says:

    The message I get from this chart is: "There is no useful data here. Admire the pretty colors, and move along."

    This chart would be much more readable if it were a simple 2D line chart.

    That’s all I need to say, because other comments have blasted this chart already.

  20. Vincent Philion says:

    I really wish you would integrate "pivot charts" that are currently only available on the Windows version.

  21. One more desire for charts in the next release of Excel — a proper logarithmic scale optionality. The version, which has been around for ages, is totally unusable, as it restricts gridlining to the powers of 10. There shall be a more intelligent algorithms for scaling gridlines and axis marks. Look how it is implemented in math or financial software (Matematica, MatLab or Metastock). Shall be a fairly easy thing to implement, even with some customization. Business types and consultants do not use logarithms indeed, but the rest of the users miss this feature desperately.

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