Despite its role as the cornerstone of web application security, it’s clear that many (most?) web professionals do not understand Same Origin Policy (SOP), or hold one or more misconceptions about what SOP requires.
It’s a big topic, and I don’t plan to address it all on this quiet Friday morning. This post will be the first in a multi-part series about SOP and what it means for the web platform.
So, what’s an Origin anyway?
In order to understand SOP, you must first understand what an origin is. For the purposes of this post, I’ll simply give the simplified explanation that an origin is a string consisting of the protocol/scheme and fully qualified hostname of a given piece of content. A webpage from http://www.example.com/a.htm has the origin “http,www.example.com”.
The reality is a bit more complicated than that; in every browser except Internet Explorer, the origin includes the server’s port (if specified), while in IE, the content’s Security Zone is a part of the origin instead. However, neither of these is relevant in most cases.
Over the years, I’ve heard many incorrect statements about SOP. For instance: “SOP means that one page cannot use resources from a different server” (wrong!) or “SOP means that one page cannot send data to a different server” (wrong!) or “SOP means that pages from one site are completely immune to tampering by other sites” (wrong!).
Each of these myths has a grain of truth in it, but with Same Origin Policy, the devil is most definitely in the details. Virtually every restriction mentioned in this blog post has one or more exceptions, but we’ll start with the basics and leave the exceptions to future posts.
The “Read Write Execute” Mental Model
While my heritage is DOS, not Unix, I like to think of Same Origin Policy using the Read, Write, Execute (RWX) permissions model commonly used in Unix filesystems (and NTFS, of course). In this model, a user/process is granted permission to perform zero or more of these three operations on a given file.
I like explaining SOP using the RWX model because it is familiar to many technical people. The simplest explanation of SOP is that Origin “A” has the following permissions:
- Read of resources from Origin “B”: Deny
- Write to Origin “B”: Limit
- Execute of resources from Origin “B”: Allow
Now, each of these points has subtleties that I will address in future posts, but the rest of today’s post is about the first one: Same Origin Policy means that pages from Origin “A” may not read the contents of resources in Origin “B”.
What does “Deny Read” mean exactly?
In this model, “deny read” means that script running in Origin “A” must not be permitted to utilize content from Origin “B” in such a way that the resource from “B” can be effectively reconstructed by “A". So, for instance, a webpage from Origin “A”:
- May execute a script from “B”
- Must not be permitted to get the raw sourcecode of that script
- May apply (execute) a CSS stylesheet from “B”
- Must not be permitted to get the raw-text of that stylesheet
- May include (execute) a frame pointed at a HTML page from “B”
- Must not be permitted to get the inner HTML of that frame
- May draw (execute) an image from “B”
- Must not be permitted to examine the bits of that image
- May play (execute) a video from “B”
- Must not be permitted to reconstruct the video by capturing images of it
…and so on.
What’s the big deal? Why Deny Read?
If content from one origin was able to read content loaded from another origin, one site could easily attack another site. For instance, an IFRAME from attacker.com could read the contents of another IFRAME from yourbank.com. And so forth. The number and scope of attacks against sensitive resources would only be limited by the attacker’s imagination.
Couldn’t the attacker’s server simply make a direct request to the victim server?
A key point in all of this is that abusing the user’s browser to load content from the victim server sends that user’s authentication (cookies, credentials, etc) to the victim server. The attacker needs these credentials to be sent to the victim server in order to get access to content worth stealing.
Stated another way, if the attacker could directly download protected resources from yourbank.com without using your browser, he absolutely would do so. But he can’t, because only your browser has the cookies and credentials that yourbank.com requires in order to return protected content.
Each of the “deny read” restrictions is fairly simply in theory, but as the web platform gets ever-richer, the challenge in enforcing these restrictions continues to grow.
If a getPixel(x,y) method existed, an attacker could embed a frame, image, or video from a victim site, then use the getPixel method to read all of the pixels out of it, allowing reconstruction of the contents. The attacking page could then send this data back to the bad guy’s server.
Unless the browser implementer takes care to block this attack, an attacker could render another origin’s images onto a canvas, then use toDataURL to steal copies of those cross-origin resources. To block the attack, the browser must keep track of any use of cross-origin images and block any subsequent calls to the canvas’ toDataURL() function with a Security Exception. The browser must also ensure that this protection isn’t circumvented by redirects; for instance, where an attacker instructs the canvas to draw http://a.com/safe.png, but that URL returns a HTTP/302 redirection to http://b.com/victim.png.
That’s it for now; see you in Part 2: Limited Write.