W3C Web Performance Workshop

The W3C Web Performance Working Group is looking for new use cases and performance issues to solve in its next chartered period. To that effect, the Working Group is holding a public workshop on November 8, 2012, in Mountain View, CA where performance experts and Web developers are invited to present ideas and discuss current challenges. Statements of interest will be the basis of the discussion at the Workshop and must be submitted by October 29th to this mailing list.

Fast HTML5 Web applications benefit consumers who browse the Web and developers building innovative new experiences. Just over two years ago, the W3C announced the formation of the Web Performance Working Group chartered with two goals: making it easier to measure and understand the performance characteristics of Web applications and defining interoperable methods to write more CPU- and power-efficient applications.

Over the course of these two years, together with Google, Mozilla, Facebook, and other industry and community leaders who participate in the W3C Web Performance Working Group, the working group has designed and standardized eight interfaces that are now widely adopted in modern HTML5-enabled browsers: Navigation Timing, Resource Timing, User Timing, Performance Timeline, Page Visibility, Timing control for script-based animations, High Resolution Time and Efficient Script Yielding. These APIs are supported in Internet Explorer, Firefox, and Chrome, and are great examples of how quickly new ideas can become interoperable standards that developers can depend.

If you are interested in sharing feedback to the Working Group and cannot attend the workshop, you can do so by completing this survey. The deadline for the survey is November 2nd.

— Jatinder Mann, Program Manager, Internet Explorer

Comments (42)

  1. Will says:

    Windows 8 will fail in the Enterprise: m.blogs.computerworld.com/…/windows-will-fail-enterprise-warns-gartner

    I'm sure that if Microsoft had made a Windows 7 version of IE 10 and actually listened to our feedback (for both the browser and the identity crisis OS) then maybe Windows 8 wouldn't be so full of failures!

    I saw the "lineup" of 20 people at my cities big grand opening release for Windows 8… Considering we are from a city of several million it shows an absolutely terrible response from the public… They don't want Windows 8… No one does.

    Microsoft should work on Windows 7 – Second Edition.

  2. pmbAustin says:

    Using IE10 on the Surface, the one thing I'm missing more than anything else is some gesture or area to tap that will jump to the top or bottom of long pages. I sure hope that's planned as an enhancement in an up-coming update…

  3. Nick says:

    @pmbAustin, please report this bug at connect.microsoft.com/IE.

    @Will, we have 20,000 employees in our organization, and they all will be using win8 PCs from next week and its just one example… So your hyperthetical assertion is false..

  4. Dale says:

    @Nick give my condolences to your 20,000 staff members.  I hope for your sake that you have a backup plan to enable rolling the upgrade back.

    We've already told our IT department that we will not be upgrading to IE8 after our tests.  Now if the service pack that Microsoft is working on fixes a bunch of things we may reconsider.

    The start button listing ALL programs and the Full Control Panel are a must attempting to fix a wifi password in windows 8 is a disaster.

    On a side note I really hope that no other companies take AVGs idea to build their latest apps for the desktop in a "metro" skin. Their antivirus scanner has gone from being a great looking and easy to use desktop application to a usability fail not only does it look ugly and out of place on the desktop (especially on windows 7) but the flat interface makes discoverability of buttons and scrollbars a complete mess.

    The only feature in windows 8 that I want is the task manager – nothing else

  5. Neil says:

    The UK doesn't like Windows 8 either: http://www.theregister.co.uk/…/civilians_test_windows_8

    One of the key parts of Agile development is the feedback cycle where you include the customer in the cycle to get their opinions and feedback.  Developers then use this information to ensure they are on the right track and building the product the customers want.

    By continuing your Waterfall development process Windows 8 (and especially IE10 Metro) are cumbersome to use, confuse gestures and mouse movements to not behave the same.

    I give the Metro experience on the desktop a 1 out of 10 stars rating for usability.  It was designed for a tablet and works great there but absolutely sucks for a desktop operating system.  I will be turning Metro off if I upgrade… or I'll wait for Windows 9.

  6. Chris Love says:

    What do these comment have to do with Web Performance? You guys have no credibility I hope you realize it.

    In a real note, I am excited to see how the IE team is taking Web Performance Optimization seriously. There are so many issues and many of them come down to developers not understanding WPO importance to their bottom lines and then how to actually code with it in mind. I am very happy with where IE is today and excited to see where it is going. Please provide more content on how IE optimizes for poorly architected web sites and applications to make the end user experience better.

  7. Nick says:

    @Dale, there are hundreds of features included in Windows 8. If you aren't really able to acknowledge the performance improvements, the graphics agility, native iso/vhd support, boot from vhd file, GUI based OS boot, extensive drivers support, cloud integration, vast variety of input devices keyboard/mouse/pen/marker/styrlus/touch(capacitive,resistive)/kinect, native HyperV support, BIOS/UEFI update from windows update, set-wireless connection as metered connection (to consume your 3g/4g/hotspot connection intelligently), filesystem support upto 16 ETABYTE with 256TB of maximum filesize, motion sensors ready (gyro,accelarometer,digital compass), first class USB3 support, Internet explorer 10 with bundle of advances in HTML5/CSS3/JS/SVG/WebSocks, development in various languages including C++/C#/F#/Del-Phi/JavaScript, newer PowerShell with tons of new cmdlets, backward compatibility for exe files build for NT3! (1994), and much much more…. all for 40 bucks if you have XP/Vista/7 license or ~170 bucks if you don't… then clearly you are whining. You remind me of a guy who used to convert avi file to mov, delete avi file and then watched mov video .. why because avi was developed by Microsoft guy. Hate makes people do all kind of ugly stuff, no big surprise for me or anyone for that matter..

    @Neil, you sound like a fresh software guy to me. Unfortunately, no one ever told you that at Microsoft, they do not use Waterfall model. They use Extreme programming, CMMI and agile methodologies since the inception! I remember it was written in our Software Engineering book and the whole industry knows that. The Start of win8 is running at 60fps, the good news here is it doesn't makes your life difficult at all as all the good ol' shortcuts work! You can type ON Start like you can type on Start Menu in win7: Hit Start > type cmd > hit enter. You get the jump list if you right click at bottom left of the screen, it will give you number of useful shortcuts (System, Task Manager, Windows Features, Event Viewer and whatnot). For a change, give windows 8 a fresh take and make your own (impartial/pure/unbiased) impression.

  8. Richard says:

    I think it's a testament to the patience of the IE team that they continue to allow comments on their blog at all. Every post just gets filled up with whiney, irrelevant posts.

  9. Taylor says:

    @Nick re: "avi was developed by Microsoft guy" no it was developed by an "Autodesk guy" it was their format first.

  10. Max says:

    Ie10 in win8 –  final version or preview?

  11. Trevor says:

    @nick I don't know about all departments at Microsoft but most do NOT do agile and extreme programming. My friends that work there ALL do waterfall.  That's probably why when the IE Team blogged about their infamous disaster called the flash whitelist it was already too late for them to listen to any feedback to fix it.

    Now we are stuck with an RTM OS release that enterprise has no plans to adopt.  Consumers will get suckered in but the hybrid OS will continue to just cause more confusion and make the eventually necessary split later a painful bandaid to pull.

  12. DNT2TPL says:

    Sorry, I am off-topic here (like so many others) but the relevant blog’s comments are closed.

    As we can read here: http://www.ypolicyblog.com/…/dnt Yahoo will not act upon a DNT header sent by IE10 users.

    I want to urge Microsoft to create and maintain a TPL that contains any site that violates my preference when deciding to enable DNT at first run of IE10 (either by using express setup or by enabling it manually). Microsoft already has such a TPL for the worst offender to privacy here: ie.microsoft.com/…/google.txt but this does not seem to be enough.

  13. Johnson says:

    @DNT2TPL browser vendors are not entitled to make decisions for users when they haven't given express concent.

    Microsoft is at fault here for not respecting the wishes of the user and blocking all cookies by default even if those cookies improve the workflow for the user and integrate all their social content together.

    This is similar to Microsofts most recent fumble where they disabled flash by default on the default IE browser for windows 8 PCs. No user asked for this! No user said hey Microsoft can you ruin my stumbleupon experience that you so proudly endorsed just a few years back? It would be awesome if half of the content won't load because you blocked it! Can we as users overturn your brain dead blocking? Nope! Microsoft is now big brother telling us what we can and can not see/use.

    Please forgive me when I firmly tell everyone I know not to downgrade to Windows 8!

    Just so you know that count is at about 85+ people so far. 13 from my extended family, 27 from work, 35 from online discussion forums, 22 from a developer group that meet up twice a month, and any of my extended contacts on linkedIn, Facebook, twitter etc.

    Even the sales reps at my local bestbuy are telling would be purchase makers about the downfalls of windows 8… Most customers I've seen have been requesting laptops with Windows 7 installed.

    Talk about a failed launch… If only Microsoft had listened to the community feedback.

    PS who from Microsoft should take credit for metro on the PC desktop? – we want to make sure they get proper attribution on the downfall of the Microsoft Empire page on Wikipedia.

  14. Naos says:

    Great to hear that such cooperation is blooming, more power to the Web 🙂

  15. DNT2TPL says:

    @ Johnson

    “browser vendors are not entitled to make decisions for users when they haven't given express consent”

    You are correct! This is exactly why Microsoft leaves the decision to enable the DNT header to the user upon the “first run experience”. Before you visit a single site you are asked what you want and it is the user’s choice that is reflected in the behavior of IE10.

    But I guess the question is mute, as there will be lawsuits filed against the privacy violators in the EU soon (where there are relevant privacy laws) and the matter resolved for the good of the users.

    Thanks for diverting attention away from the anti-privacy policy of some site operators!

    But to answer this largely irrelevant question also: Thank you Microsoft, for enforcing web standards and sidelining proprietary non-standard technologies – including Microsoft’s own Silverlight. What a relief to be able to browse without nagging flash ads.

    There is so many false arguments presented here, that I do not want to set them all right, but a few of them are worth mentioning:

    “Can we as users overturn your brain dead blocking? Nope!” – WRONG

    Just set IE10 Desktop as your default browser and you are done.

    From here: blogs.msdn.com/…/security-advisory-2755801-revised-to-address-adobe-flash-player-issues.aspx

    1.) Open Metro IE on your **DESKTOP** computer because it is now the DEFAULT BROWSER!

    2.) Navigate to Web App of choice

    3.) Login ********

    … plus a few more irrelevant points:

    From what this “steve” is telling us you can deduct three things:

    1.) The “Web App of choice” was created by an incompetent developer, as the App should check if the prerequisites are met BEFORE allowing a login.

    2.) The “Web App of choice” was created by an incompetent developer, as the App should indicate what the prerequisites are (and thus redirecting to IE10 Desktop).

    3.) The “Web App of choice” was created in such a fashion that it does not work on iOS or (newer) Android devices, as these do not provide flash support at all.

    I would reconsider my business relationship with such a developer.

  16. John Deer says:

    windows 8 starts with a puzzle. Does IE10 too?

  17. Maxim says:

    @DNT2TPL thanks for pretending to speak for all of us! You're so special!

    Back on planet earth there are several issues with windows 8 and metro IE.  most have been discuses all over this blog but let's recap a few things.

    1.) my install of windows 8/metro IE did not present me with a choice to accept or decline tracking. Please provide a screenshot of this so that we know it exists.  I also certainly hope that it is very clear that turning this blocking on will also diminish the user experience across sites that integrate social networking etc.

    2.) the biggest problem with the lack of flash in metro is the absence of anything indicating there is an issue.

    3.) as a user it ticks me off that YouTube works in metro but none of the sites I want to access works. Where do I go to add a site to this list… And if I can't, please provide me/us with the email address of the MSFT employee that is in charge of this design as we have some choice words to share regarding a failed implementation. My power plug on my laptop/docking station works fine and I was planning to use many Internet/intranet sites in metro to do my work but now I can't. What is the point of this new metro UI if it breaks business as usual apps across the enterprise?

  18. hAl says:

    @Maxim thanks for pretending to have a current Windows 8 install whilst it is obvious you have not.

    Every Windows 8 install will force you on a express choice screen where you have to choose to either accept a visible Do-not-track setting as an express setting or choose to make a custom setting for it.

    Zie also this article (includes screenshot):


  19. Charles says:

    So what exactly happened here Microsoft?

    You commented back on November 29th, 2011 here on the IE Blog: blogs.msdn.com/…/html5-for-applications-the-fourth-ie10-platform-preview.aspx

    "We will release an IE10 Beta and Release Candidate on Windows 7 prior to IE10’s general availability.

    Web developers interested in working with the new features of IE10 are encouraged to download the Windows 8 Developer Preview at msdn.microsoft.com/…/."

    Since IE10 went to GA (General Availability) on Windows 8 on Friday October 26th both the Beta and the RC (Release Candidate) are already overdue.

    While we appreciate that you posted a revised timeline in this post: blogs.msdn.com/…/ie10-on-windows-7-available-in-november.aspx of the ambiguous "Mid-November" however this lack of commitment is dis-concerning.

    As developers we were waiting patiently for a Windows 7 release to test on but it never came… thus only if we acquired an extra PC to apply the Win8 install on were we actually able to test our content and the usability of IE10.

    It sucks to now find that there are all kinds of issues with IE10 (especially with Metro) and yet since there was no adequate testing done the browser shipped with so many outstanding issues yet unresolved!

    In future if you can't commit to a date/timeline – DO NOT POST one… and if you do commit to a date/timeline – AS SOON AS YOU REALIZE YOU ARE NOT GOING TO MAKE IT you need to let us know!

    Posting less than a week before launch that you are not going to make it by a mile (even worse without any sign of an apology) is disgraceful.  With all the bad press around the failed launch of Windows 8 it seems the last thing you really want to be doing is shunning the developers that you need so desperately to adopt your new browser/platform.

  20. Literacy... says:

    @Charles: You made an incorrect assumption in your reading. Let's fix the statement for clarity: "We will release an IE10 Beta and Release Candidate on Windows 7 prior to IE10’s general availability on that operating system."

  21. DNT2TPL says:


    “thanks for pretending to speak for all of us! You're so special!”

    I did not to pretend to do so, but if you got the impression, I am sorry! English is not my native tongue, so I guess I used the wrong words.

    Regarding your points:

    Ad 1.) As the screen is called “first run” I cannot provide you with a screenshot, but it is there, and a little search on the net will show you what it looks like.

    “…turning this blocking on will also diminish the user experience…”

    What one person sees as “diminishing” another person might see as “enhancing”. I am one of those. As I’ve said before, if the user experience requires some precondition, and the app/site does not check for it, it is an incompetently written app/site. No mercy for the bad if they need it!

    Ad 2.)

    “the biggest problem with the lack of flash in metro is the absence of anything indicating there is an issue.”

    And again: if the user experience requires some precondition, and the app/site does not check for it, it is an incompetently written app/site.

    Ad 3.)

    “as a user it ticks me off that YouTube works in metro but none of the sites I want to access works.”

    This is actually a great blessing for me. Usually I ran IE9 with “-extoff” start parameter and for the few times that I went to YouTube (to see TheYoungTurks) I had to open up a new instance of IE9 without the “-extoff” start parameter. Now this is no longer necessary, as it simply works the way I want it to.

    “Where do I go to add a site to this list…”

    Try reading the documentation on the Microsoft website or read the information given on this blog.

    “What is the point of this new metro UI if it breaks business as usual apps across the enterprise?”

    Again, try reading the documentation on how flash can be enabled for the enterprise domain.

  22. jader3rd says:


    Flash is not disabled by default. Heck, with IE10 it's built it. I wish it was disable by default. The first thing I do on a new setup is to go to Manage Add Ons and remove all sites from being able to run Flash.

  23. IE user says:

    What is the point with a preview of IE10?

  24. @IE user says:

    It helps shake out bugs.  It's part of the software development process.

  25. Todd says:

    We saw the launch of windows phone 8 today and to his credit Balmer didn't lose his cool even with all the bad press around windows 8.

    The part I still don't get for both the phone and tablet and metro desktop is that the original design only looks sexy with the plain silhouette tiles and occasional photos yet you're letting developers put any kind of icon they want for their apps resulting in a super ugly set of tiles as soon as you start using it. As a mobile app developer I just don't see the point in starting a new paradigm if you have no plans to regulate it?!

    Anyone I know that's got windows 8 has already installed a replacement start button/menu and is looking to disable Metro.  I'm therefore concerned that there's no point porting over apps if the market is already revolting against Metro.

    I seriously hope that service pack 1 is out before 2013 and that it majorly fixes this mess.

    I'm certainly not going to develop for windows devices until these issues are resolved in a patch – mobile developers are not going to jump on this platform until we know the platform is heading in the right direction!

  26. Caveman says:

    Can IE10 show porn?

  27. Larry says:

    @Caveman – yes it can but in IE10 Metro mode all the flash content (e.g. about 90% of the movies) won't play properly and you won't be able to see or tell why.

    You'll need to use the desktop browser to view all your movie content without restrictions.

    Aren't you glad that Microsoft decided for you that you can't view those sites properly?! Wouldn't it make sense if you could choose whether or not that is what you wanted to do?

    You can post your comments and complaints for all IE10 related issues here:


    Keep in mind that although other users will find this and similar IE10 issues very frustrating Microsoft has already committed to providing zero useful feedback and will not actually listen to your comments or complaints.  Even the Windows 7 version of IE10 is now months overdue and Microsoft has still failed to apologize for the delay.

    Please ensure you use social media to properly describe your issues and flag your posts with #Windows8 and #MetroIE / #IE10 to ensure that the rest of the world gets informed about these issues before committing to an "upgrade" with a downgraded experience.

  28. farhadakbari26 says:


  29. Moncton says:

    So Microsoft has announced that JavaScript is not a valid platform for Windows Phone development yet it's ok for tablets?!

    Care to explain what Frankenstein browser mess is actually included in windows phone 8?

    We know it isn't IE10 and we know that parts were stolen from IE9 code but the word on the street says the core rendering engine is still Trident from the IE6 code stream!

    Care to explain the whole truth?!

    Targeting mobile for Windows phone needs to know if IE will be capable or if we need to continue sending IE to the lightweight site because it can't cope yet.

  30. Steve L. says:

    just finished a few hours playing with Windows 8 to see if I could actually make the switch.  Short answer? heck NO!

    The networking on Windows 8 is flakey yet flawless on the other 7 devices/PCs on my desk!

    The navigation time between pages in Metro IE is beyond pathetic… is there some sort of URL checker that is majorly interfering with every single request?

    The buttons (or should I say the flat rectangles) that now take over the desktop are horrible.  They don't even look like buttons any more – a total 180 in terms of usability!

    Metro IE tab switching or trying to find the address bar is a pain in the rear.  Not every web page has an easy to access blank spot to right click on so that I can get to my tabs!  If you're gonna hide the start bar in Metro, why the Fudge don't you make going to the bottom of the screen actually do something… e.g. bring up the address bar… and why doesn't going to the top of the screen show the tabs?  Utter insanity!

    Trying to access settings is now a mess no more WinKey, S, C no… that would be simple… heck you can't even get to the real start menu!

    Browsing in Metro IE is hilarious… half the web fails to load because the flash content is blocked… it just makes IE look dumb for not being able to load the content that no other *PC* browser has issues with.

    I will certainly NOT be going to Windows 8 and I will certainly be telling everyone I know to avoid it like the plague! Worst OS upgrade Ever!

  31. Richard says:

    I ran a quick survey at work this week about employees that bought a tablet (we have 14,000) on our office.

    (Just this last week)

    Those that bought an iPad mini? 7 did, another 12 bought an iPad.

    4 bought an android tablet.

    2 bought a PlayBook

    0 bought a windows surfarce

    I also asked the remaining if they were planing to buy a tablet before/for Christmas?… 100's said yes… No one wanted to get the surfarce and many went into details why.

    Needless to say the branding was a huge issue… No one wanted to have a tablet with the name Microsoft anywhere on it.

    And that's something that billions of advertising dollars won't fix.

    I highly suggest you drop all none surfarce devices and just call it "surfarce" with the 4 squares… Don't even put the name Microsoft on it except burried somewhere deep in the legal that no one reads… It will likely increase your sales 10 fold.

    Until then, Santa's sleigh will be completely absent of MS devices.

  32. ONE WORLD FROM AN UPSETCUSTOMER IS…..compatibility NOT FOR THE FAINT OF HART!  It is because forward thinking, and with that I say it’s not backwards enough, compatibility  "e.g. Windows 7, Internet Explorer 8 and Windows 8, Internet Explorer 10" Somewhere in between Internet Explorer 9 and Surface was brought into the picture, and my Internet Explorer 9 is not forward compatible.  Also Surface and say a Touch Table browser would not have that compatibility nor would it be needed for a desktop non production or developing environment.

  33. IE10 demo says:

    I stumbled on that IE10 demo recently:


    It looks gorgeous on Google Chrome. I can't begin to fathom how great it must run on actual IE10.

    Godd job guys!

  34. Blaine says:

    I had a 4-5 paragraph comment to make but this blog swallowed it whole!

    Since I know there has been a bunch of complaints over the years about this blog eating comments I'd just like to add that it got me today.

    Please get someone to fix this – I will not attempt to post again until it has been fixed – what a waste of time and effort, it's no wonder developers on this blog are so angry with Microsoft!

    PS I had to copy and paste this 3 times to get it to post!

  35. Evan says:

    Since calling it Metro is forbidden due to the lawsuit I propose we call it:

    "En Frente De El Camino"

    It translates to "The front of the El Camino" the classic automotive flop that attempted to merge a car with a truck.  Just like Microsoft attempted to merge a tablet OS with a desktop OS and made 2 Operating systems… 1 not fit for a tablet and 1 not fit for a desktop.

    En Frente De El Camino – it has a nice ring to it…

    Windows8 – En Frente and En Trasero De El Camino!

    Sounds awesome!

  36. Baxter says:

    Windows 8 los failos.

  37. Patrick says:

    Well it has now begun! I was just at my local Future Shop store watching a customer argue with sales staff about returning an ASUS RT tablet.  You'll never believe this but the packaging never clearly indicated that the tablet was incapable of installing windows apps or that you could only run 4 of them at a time.

    The staff at the store seemed to think he wasn't telling the truth until myself and another woman stepped in and told them that indeed the customer was correct and that none of the existing windows apps were installable on the device.

    Once the store realized the device was sub par and did not meet the expectations indicated in the advertising they had to refund the customer in full.

    Retail stores are now refusing to comment until this is resolved but consumers would like to know what Microsoft is going to do about this. Is Microsoft going to pull all RT devices off the shelf until the packaging and advertising is fixed?

    Or is Microsoft going to risk further embarrassment by hoping that they can deal with the individual complaints and refunds on a daily basis?

    We warned the staff at the store to advise all potential consumers of the pitfalls of Windows 8 RT and they agreed they need to explain the full details to all customers before making a purchase and/or advise all shoppers to avoid windows 8 tablets until this problem is fully clarified.

    It shouldn't have had to come to this Microsoft! We begged you to drop the RT line or fully disclose the issues and you failed to do so.

    Extremely disappointed with Microsoft – Again!

  38. Walter says:

    Well the predictions were if Mitt Romney could get elected then Windows (formerly known as metro) might be a success.

    Long live Windows 7! Microsofts best operating system so far!

  39. George says:

    LMAO at all the b*tthurts complaining here 😛

  40. aaa says:

    In Ie9, if a character input cursor is no longer expressed as a specific site, there is mind.

    Please make correction of fault, while it is early.

  41. @Patrick says:

    With windows RT, you get both IE10 new-ui and desktop one, Office 2013, Windows store (with 10k+ and growing apps), support for stylus, digital pen, digital marker, multipoint touch (upto 11 points 10 fingers + nose (-:) , and many many devices via USB (mouse, scanner, camera, printer, flash-drive, external-usb etc) which Android and iOS fail to provide. Surface pro would have USB3 support, so speedy performance. The only down part is the apps which are getting populated in store on daily bases (the store was opened some 20 days ago and there are 10k+ apps already). Till new year, Microsoft is expecting 50k+ apps in Store. May be people can wait for some cheaper WinRT  tablets by first quarter of 2013. But RT tablets are surely giving a great deal! Nokia is also supposed to introduce 8/RT tab in first quarter of 2013 and I am expecting more from Nokia.

    The ONLY thing is price!!! Windows Phone and Windows tablets should compete Android tablets in terms of price. Apple's iPad prices are high. Because Apple is always concerned about making class. Microsoft is user-friendly and known for making software for run-of-the-mill devices. For example Microsoft introduced IPV6 support with Windows 2000 and even NT! Apple introduced IPV6 support in Mac 10.7 (Lion) released in July 2011. So Microsoft is technologically ahead but in terms of cool fancy tablets and phones for daily life tasks, Apple and Google has done a great job so they are clouding the market. But its not the end of the world, Microsoft has many technologies which can be merged more tightly (like XBox, Kinect, Phone, tablet, PC, servers) for a reasonable rates and win its position back in the very ubiquitous world we live in.

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