For whatever reason, OneDrive did not update in one of my machines after I upgraded to the new Windows 10, 1709.
I was able to bump it up by downloading the setup file from here:
I found the address in the AppData\Local\Microsoft\OneDrive\StandaloneUpdater\Update.xml file.
It was pointing to the old version, so I've got the new version number from another machine and downloaded the installer directly.
I suppose https://onedrive.live.com/about/en-us/download/ will eventually point to that as well (or a similar link).