day Peter Torr and I walked into Herman Venter’s office (Herman was the architect
and primary implementer of JScript .NET). We
were grinning. Herman knew what that
meant. He took one look at us and said
“Uh oh, here come the Evil Security Twins.” And
indeed, we had found another potential vulnerability in JScript .NET — fortunately,
before we shipped.
Evil Security Twin has an interesting post today about the need to trust both code
and the code container. I thought I might
discuss the semantics of some of the words Peter uses. Security
experts often use word
pairs such as safe/dangerous, trusted/untrusted,
and benign/hostile without clearly
distinguishing them from each other. These distinctions are
both important and frequently misunderstood. Essentially the differences are these:
particular assembly is safe if
it is unable to harm you: modify your disk, steal your data, deny service, and so
on. The safety or dangerousness of an assembly is fundamentally a technical question:
what does the assembly attempt to do? For instance, does it read the disk? Then it
might steal secrets. Does it create dialog boxes? Then it might create hundreds of
them and make it hard to use your machine.
level of trust you
assign to an assembly is essentially the set of permissions you are
willing to grant it based on evidence. For instance, if you believe
that if an assembly from the Internet is granted permission to access your disk then
it might misuse that ability to do you harm, you should not grant the permission.
express their opinions about trust by configuring their policies appropriately.
“Do not trust code from the Internet to access the disk” is an example of such a policy.
an assembly is hostile or benign depends
on the mindset and goals of the assembly’s author. An assembly that creates a file
might be perfectly benign, or it might be creating the file in order to consume all
the hard disk space on your machine as a denial-of-service attack. An assembly that
creates a dialog box that looks just like the Windows password dialog might be attempting
to steal your password.
is no way to detect the intent of the programmer. If there were then security
would be easy: use your magical ESP powers to see what the programmer was thinking
and then just prevent code written by hostile people who hate you from running! In
the real, non-magical world all that the .NET security system can do is restrict the
abilities of an assembly based on the available evidence.
that essentially we use these words technically in the same way we do in everyday
speech. A tennis ball is inherently quite safe and
an axe is inherently quite dangerous.
You trust that the axe maker made a trustworthy product
that accurately advertises its dangerous nature
(rather than masquerading as a safe object which you could then accidentally misuse). Whether
someone carrying an axe is hostile or benign has
nothing to do with the axe, but everything to do with their intentions.
And whether you trust that
person to do yard work is a question of what evidence you
have that they’re trustworthy. A policy that
codifies this trust decision might be “Don’t give axes to unidentified strangers.”
we get into cryptographic evidence, things
get even more confusing. What are all
of these certificates for, and who signed them, and why do we trust them? We
can continue our analogy.
guy shows up at your door to do the yard work. You’re
considering handing him an axe. What
evidence do you have that this is a wise thing to do?
could start by asking for some ID. The
guy hands you a card that says “Hi, my name is Sven the Lumberjack”. Does
this establish identity? Obviously
not. Does it establish trustworthiness? No! So
missing is the imprimatur of a trusted authority. If
instead Sven hands you a driver’s license with a photo on it that matches him and
a name that matches the name he claims is his, then that’s pretty good evidence of
identity. Why? Because you have a
trust relationship with the entity that issued the document! You
know that the department of transportation doesn’t give a driver’s license out to
just anyone, and that they ensure that the picture and the name match each other correctly.
far we’ve established identity but have we established trustworthiness? Maybe,
maybe not. Identity is a crisp, technical
question. Trustworthiness is a squishy,
human question. Maybe you’re willing
to say that anyone who is willing to identify themselves is trustworthy. Maybe
you demand extra credentials, like a lumberjack union membership card — credentials
that certify relevant abilities, not just identity.
Maybe you’re worried about fake ID’s. All that is up to you — you’re
the one handing this guy an axe. How
paranoid are you? Set your policies appropriately. (Some of us are more
paranoid than others, like Peter “I only read ASCII email” Torr. That’s hard-core,
I digress. My point is that we construct chains of
trust. Every link in
that chain must hold up, and the chain has to end in some authority which you explicitly
the computer world, your machine has a certificate store containing a list of “trusted
roots”, like Verisign. By putting Versign
in the trusted root store, you are saying “I explicitly trust Verisign to do their
job of issuing and revoking credentials that establish identity and trustworthiness.”
Sven goes to Verisign and asks for a “code signing” cert, Verisign will confirm his
identity and issue a certificate that says “this guy is known to Verisign and this
certificate can be used to sign executable code.”
It’s a driver’s license for coding!
you download some code off the internet, the security system checks to see if you
trust it — does it come from someone with an identity verified by Verisign? Do
you trust that individual? And does the
certificate they’re showing you say that they have the right to sign executable code? If
so, then the code runs. If not, then
the chain of trust is broken somewhere, and it doesn’t run.