Which Style of Workflow When?


Windows Workflow Foundation supports three basic styles of workflow:  Sequential, State Machine and Data-Driven. 


I get a lot of people asking me which style is right for their problem, so I thought I’d share my thoughts on this with you all.


Let’s start with a simple problem.  I want Fred to review a document, then Joe to approve it, and finally I want to send it to my customer.


This is an obvious Sequential style workflow.  To implement it, I create a Sequential Workflow project, add a sequence of Activities which ask Fred to review, Joe to approve, and finally myself to send the document – and I’m done.


A Sequential workflow is characterized by the fact that the workflow is in control.  Fred, Joe and I get to do what we’re told, when we’re told to do it.  We do our stuff, let workflow central know that we did it, and then the workflow decides what happens next.


Of course, the Sequential style doesn’t mean that things always happen in a simple linear sequence like this.  We can have conditional branching, loops, and so on.  What it means is that the workflow controls the sequence.  The Sequential style is the classic style of workflow, as implemented by dozens of products over the years. 


In my opinion, it is also significantly responsible for giving Workflow a bad name.  Not that there’s anything wrong with telling people what to do (I’m known to indulge in the practice myself, occasionally) – but sometimes it just doesn’t work.


Let’s look at an example.  Say that I’m testing a product that’s being developed.  When I find a problem, I open a bug, assign it to the guilty developer, then wait confidently for the fix. I want to write a workflow to manage this process.


So far, this sounds very familiar.  The steps are: tester opens bug, developer fixes bug, tester approves fix.  Just like the simple document review we saw before.


But this is illusory.  What really happens?  A tester opens a bug, and assign it to Bill.  Bill says, no not me, this is Clive’s, and reassigns the bug to him.  Or Bill says, this tester is not in this case quite correct (or words to that effect), and rejects the bug as nonsense.  Or asks the tester for clarifying information.  Or even, if he’s in a good mood, fixes it and hands it back to the tester.  Or, if the original tester is out, another tester.  Or the tester withdraws an erroneous bug (surely not).  And so on, with each participant being able to make one of a set of choices at any given stage.


What happens if I write this in the Sequential style?  Something like this (if you’ll forgive my pseudocode):


               Tester T creates instance of bug workflow
               T adds bug details
               T assigns to developer D
LabelA:     Switch
                     D assigns to developer E
                           Goto LabelA
                     D rejects bug to T:
                           Switch
                                 T accepts rejection:
                                 T updates bug and assigns to developer F:
                                          Goto LabelA
                           End Switch
                     D requests info from T:
                     T submits info
                           Goto LabelA
                     D submits solution to T:
                     T withdraws bug:
               End Switch


You get the idea.  Loops and choices which arise within choices are posing structural questions (here I held my nose and used Goto, to try and keep the mapping from the scenario to the code obvious).  And if we start making the process more realistic still, with a queue of bugs coming in that a development team leader assigns to individuals (or a developer might grab them from the queue), and we add a project manager to the picture with the ability to set bug priorities in flight, and so on, things will get worse and worse.


This problem is much better tackled using the State Machine style.  The pseudo-code above becomes:


State: Initial
      Action: T adds bug details
      Action: T assigns to developer D; new state = Fixing


State: Fixing
      Action: D assigns to developer E
      Action: D rejects bug to T; new state = Rejected
      Action: D requests info;  new state = Pending Info
      Action: D submits solution; new state = Pending Approval
      Action: T withdraws bug; new state = Closed


State: Rejected
      Action: T accepts rejection; new state = Closed
      Action: T updates bug and assigns to developer F; new state = Fixing


State: Pending Info
      Action: T submits info; new state = Fixing


State:  Pending Approval
      Action: T rejects solution; new state = Fixing
      Action: T accepts solution; new state = Closed


State: Closed


This is much cleaner and more comprehensible.  Also, adding more features will not complicate the structure – it will simply mean adding more states and actions.


Implementing this style in Windows Workflow Foundation is simply a matter of creating a State Machine Workflow project and defining the states and actions required.


So what’s the criterion for using the State Machine style?  Simply this: are the important choices being made outside the workflow?  Is the user in control?  If so, then the Sequential workflow’s notion that it calls all the shots will become a nuisance.  The State Machine style of workflow, on the other hand, expects the choice of what to do to be made outside the workflow.


So if the workflow makes no choices, what is it for?  Well, a State Machine workflow controls the sets of choices.  It makes no sense for a tester to accept a solution until one has been submitted.  It only becomes valid when the bug workflow has reached an appropriate state – by one of a large number of possible routes.


It’s this last point that leads us to another insight about why the State Machine style is more applicable to this problem.  The Sequential workflow, of its nature, encodes all the possible sequences of behavior in its structure.  But here, we don’t care.  We only need to know about the current state, and what can be done next.  So if we spend time modeling routes through the process, event though we don’t in fact care about them, and these routes are many, as they are in the bug problem, then the Return On Investment from the Sequential style inevitably becomes very poor.


OK, so far, so good.  What’s this third, Data-Driven, style about?


This time, we’ll use the example of an inventory shortfall.  An assembly line is making a gadget, and the computer said there were enough widgets in stock for the purpose, but when the stockroom manager went to fetch the widgets, there was a shortfall of 10.


We want to build a workflow to handle this scenario.


What are the possible actions?  The supplies department could order more widgets, perhaps going to a different supplier or paying more money for faster delivery.  The account manager could go to the customer and defer delivery, or split the delivery in two parts and bear the extra shipping cost.  The production manager could take assembled gadgets from an order for another customer and divert them.  The stockroom manager could search his stock to find the missing widgets.


Our workflow will be a collaboration, containing all these actions, restricted to the appropriate roles.  Any given action might be performed multiple times.  One obvious constraint is that the collaboration is not done until the shortfall is fixed by some combination of the above actions.


There will also be business constraints.  For instance, there may be a rule that says deferral of delivery to gold customers is never permitted.  Also, the actions will affect each other.  For instance, we may say that total added cost from corrective action may not exceed 5% of original factory cost – so placing an order for accelerated supplies might prevent a shipment being split.


This is not a Sequential workflow – all the decisions are being made outside the workflow.  Is it a State Machine workflow?  Clearly, the sets of actions allowed to each role varies as the collaboration progresses – as splitting shipments becomes impossible, for instance – and the workflow is determining these sets of actions.


But the set of actions available at any given point is determined by the interaction of a number of  independent rules – whether the customer is a gold customer, whether we have already deferred delivery once, whether the profit margin on the order is becoming a problem, etc.  So the number of possible sets of actions – and therefore the number of corresponding states – is going to be large. 


Crucially, we’re actually not interested in what these possible combinations of actions are – only that the rules are enforced.  So we find ourselves again in a situation where a modeling approach, in this case the state machine, captures information we don’t care about – and therefore has poor ROI.


What do we get ROI from modeling?  Why, simply what are the available actions, and who can perform them under what circumstances.  This is just a set of actions, and for each, a role and a boolean expression which determines availability.


There is one more thing.  We’d like to know when our collaboration is done – so we add to the model another boolean expression which is true when the collaboration is finished.  In this case, the expression will test whether there are, or will be, enough widgets in stock for assembly.


How is this Data-Driven style implemented in Windows Workflow Foundation?  There are two model elements to support this approach:  the Constrained Activity Group, and the Policy.  Both are typically used within a Sequential Workflow project, and represent regions of ‘data-drivenness’.


Clearly, it would be possible to model all workflows in this Data-Driven style.  Wouldn’t we then have only one modeling approach to worry about?


This is true, but not optimal.  To see why, consider how we know that a Data-Driven workflow is correct.  We cannot predict its behavior very easily at all – the number of possible different series of actions that the workflow will allow is very large.  So really the only way to test it is to try it, using enough different initial states, and enough different paths through it, that we feel confident in its operation.


Contrast the testing of a Sequential style of workflow.  It has only a few possible sequences of behavior, which we can test exhaustively.  We can get a higher level of confidence more cheaply.


So the motto is, choose the workflow model which has as much structure as your problem has – and no more.  Deviating in either direction costs you money.  Using a style with too much structure adds cost because you’re encoding information which has no value.  Using a style with too little structure adds cost because your testing costs are higher than they need to be.


And one final word.  Do not think that a typical real world application should use only one style.  Most applications are most cost-effectively built from a composition of styles.  Consider a Call Center application where most of the time the system uses scripts to drive the telephone operators.  Probably a  Sequential workflow.  But then there are always the exceptions, such as an account in a shouldn’t-have-got-there state.  Now we want to refer to an expert.  Experts need to make choices – and so should be supported with a State Machine or Data Driven workflow.


So there you have it – my thinking on styles of workflow in the Windows Workflow Foundation.  Feedback, as ever, solicited and welcome!


  


 


 


Comments (392)

  1. Anonymous says:

    I found this information really helpful.

    Initially, I just read the post and moved on in my aggregator but I kept coming back to the fact that this post is important to those of us who are new to working with workflow on a regular basis and to WWF in particular.

    I think there are a lot of us out here who would like to see you continue post this type of information. We would also like you to link to other workflow and WWF sources that you think would be of benefit to us including books that you would recommend.

  2. Anonymous says:

    David – this is just superb insight! By providing a set of simple rules to help us make choices is great ROI in of itself. Thanks a zillion.

    P.S. Over on my Blog, I posted a piece on WF.

  3. bevcorwin says:

    Yes, please continue to post info, very helpful. Any other WF events coming up?

  4. Anonymous says:

    Very smart and simple explanation!

    It´s really helpful to have this kind of posts, thanks!

  5. Anonymous says:

    Just posted an extended version of my older post.

    It´s here: <a href="http://staff.southworks.net/blogs/ariel/archive/2005/10/27/What_style_of_Workflow_should_I_use.aspx"&gt; "Which Workflow Style should I use?: More approaches…"</a>

    Thanks!

  6. Anonymous says:

    Excellent stuff Dave. But considering most of my apps will be WinForms I am struggling to picture where in a typical WinForms app I will need a workflow. E.g. I have an Sales Order Entry app. Would this standard type of app be a candidate for a workflow?

  7. Anonymous says:

    Your post is very helpful to me, thank yo 🙂

    I am considering about how to integrate human activity into BPEL. As a modelling language based mainly on sequential scenario, BPEL is insufficient to deal with the complexity of human activity. My current idea is that, regarding human activity in main process as a sub-process, using advanced petri net(colored PN, timed PN) to model human activity, tranforming petri net sub-process into BPEL sub-process, and integrating sub-process into main process via ‘call’ activity.

    So, my qustion is that, how to integrate three styles into a real world application? does there exist a unified modeling language for three styles in WWF?

    thank again for your good post

  8. Anonymous says:

    Yep, that helped ! Keep the good stuff coming 🙂 Thanks.

  9. Anonymous says:

    Excellent post! I’m just trying to learn the concepts and think of ways that I could use WWF. This is really helpful information. Please continue.

  10. Anonymous says:

    Good Post, and helpful , any information on Declarative Workflows

  11. Anonymous says:

    Muy bueno, simplemente claro.

    Gracias

  12. Anonymous says:

    Your insight is very helpful  Dave, don’t blog fast aand dry young on us now 😉

  13. Anonymous says:

    This posting is really helpfull to me. I was thinking Which style should i use. But it solves my problem. Please continue.

  14. Anonymous says:

    Quote: <<This is true, but not optimal.  To see why, consider how we know that a Data-Driven workflow is correct.  We cannot predict its behavior very easily at all – the number of possible different series of actions that the workflow will allow is very large.  So really the only way to test it is to try it, using enough different initial states, and enough different paths through it, that we feel confident in its operation.>>

    It seems to me that if you have a well-defined model for all the workflow components, "trying it" doesn’t have to mean actually executing the code. You could build an explicit-state model-checker that would guarantee CTL * formulas, e.g. AG.Request->(AF Response). [It is always true (G=global) that a request will always eventually (F=future) produce a response. That is, I haven’t overlooked any paths that let a request be dropped without actually being handled.] Better yet, your model-checker can be built by Microsofties and yet have the ability to check workflow programs written by developers (or business users), precisely because you’re using a component-based model. It seems to me that a developer is going to be much more willing to modify and extend a workflow if you can give some sort of automated guarantee that he isn’t breaking something important–the function of regression tests is to increase confidence, and thus agility.

    So it would be really nice to have model-checking, or the equivalent, built into workflow at some point.

    -Max Wilson

  15. Anonymous says:

    Excellent and very useful post. Pls post more…

  16. Anonymous says:

    This is Excellent and very useful post.Can u post a Blog which explains about all the controls in Windows WorkFlow Foundation Tool Box

  17. Anonymous says:

    This is Excellent and very useful post.Can u post a Blog which explains about all the controls in Windows WorkFlow Foundation Tool Box

  18. dariusz.jankowski says:

    Very simple explanation. Very good. !!! Bravo !!!

  19. Anonymous says:

    Thanks Dave  !!  Wow provided good clarity , specially to the State Machine WF !!!

     Also come to think of it the Data Driven Flow is not always viable and can cross over to Sequential  

     sometimes or State .

     

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  24. Anonymous says:

    This is Gold ! The framework is visionary and this article is a beacon of clarity. I was on the edge of abandoning further investigation of Workflow Solutions on the basis that its purpose was incomprehensible. Ironic indeed now that I understand how it is intended to bring simplicity to my workplace. Thanks for the insight.

  25. Anonymous says:

    http://www.thispointer.com/pivot/entry.php?id=167

    what type of  workflow is that??

  26. Anonymous says:

    Here are the&amp;nbsp;Windows Workflow Foundation&amp;nbsp;articles that I have found useful:

    What Is Windows…

  27. Anonymous says:

    Good effort my friend..

    really useful.

  28. Anonymous says:

    Hoping to see more examples on finalising aproach of selecting type of model..

  29. Anonymous says:

    This was very helpful. I’m new to this, and I would like to understand more about the role of business rules in all this. You mentioned rules… but didn’t mention the MS Business Rules Engine and authoring capability. I want to know more about judgement calls regarding whether some logic should be in workflow or in rules… or is that even a good question?

  30. Anonymous says:

    Can you please give some information on Data-driven workflows .

    I don’t see any example or good article on it

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  32. Anonymous says:

    Here are the&amp;nbsp;Windows Workflow Foundation&amp;nbsp;articles that I

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    What Is Windows…

  33. Anonymous says:

    Excellent – for a non-technical workflow person.  We who would presume to design a workflow and then ask someone else to build the pieces in Sharepoint need this kind of overview on the logic of the systems.  Indispensible.

  34. Anonymous says:

    I don’t know what there is to do with this.

  35. Anonymous says:

    Dave,

    I found this explanation very usefu, i think there should be more articles on WWF like yours!

    Good use of simple understandable scenarios.

  36. Anonymous says:

    Hi,

    I am trying to implement bug tracking system using windows workflow. I am already running a bug tracking system which is non windows workflow based.

    My doubt is – how should I handle my earlier bugs which have their own states (e.g. Open/ Resolved/ Need more clarification/ Closed) while creating this workflow based bug tracking system?

    Please guide.

    Thanks in advance

  37. Anonymous says:

    The framework is visionary and this article is a beacon of clarity. I was on the edge of abandoning further investigation of Workflow Solutions on the basis that its purpose was incomprehensible. Ironic indeed now that I understand how it is intended to bring simplicity to my workplace.

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  152. Anonymous says:

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  191. Anonymous says:

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  201. Anonymous says:

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  228. Anonymous says:

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  279. Santosh Mahto(san) says:

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  280. luggage says:

    I really wish that these kind of resources were available years ago… or, should I say, that years ago I knew where to get these kind of resources (given that this post is 3 years old.) This kind of way of looking at workflow would have greatly assisted us in the Logistics industry, even, many years ago when we were going through some major process issues. Of course, that was when I was in Logistics – and now I’m not. And, now, I know how to access this kind of info… it figures, I guess…

  281. Very nice and interesting site for me.

  282. rugs says:

    I was reading another blog about “State Machine” and I couldn’t make heads or tales of what they were talking about. What a coincidence – as I now have stumbled onto this blog and I see you’re also talking about “State Machine”. IT makes a whole lot of sense now what it’s all about and what it’s used for, and I think I can make total sense of the other guy’s blog now. I wish we had workflow eight years ago!

  283. This week, we’ve added two new articles for WF to the MSDN Online Library : an article by Jon Flanders

  284. roc says:

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  285. bioderma says:

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  286. Excellent stuff Dave. But considering most of my apps will be WinForms I am struggling to picture where in a typical WinForms app I will need a workflow. E.g. I have an Sales Order Entry app. Would this standard type of app be a candidate for a workflow?

  287. vichy says:

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  288. Acai Berry says:

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  289. Cool, pretty interesting! Keep up the good work!

  290. Kochmesser says:

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  291. I guess that mist people here did not even read the article.

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  292. vinuthan says:

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    i would like to know the approach for following use case:

    i have a simple workflow where a manger can approve or reject a request. the workflow exists in In Review, Accepted and Rejected status. The no of status’s to which the task gets transitioned to 2 is just 2 (accepted or rejected) .

    Ideally this might have to be implemented using a State machine workflow.

    Can we implement this as a Event Driven Sequential workflow. (Using the CallExternalMethods or HandleExternalEvent activity)

    Which is a better approach.?

  293. Girishgouda says:

    I am working on a task in SharePoint where we need to develop the following scenario

    We need to develop a product development Lifecycle in SharePoint

    1.1.1     Create Product Development Plan

    Primary Actor – Project Manager

    The project manager is notified of the new product development comprising one or more competencies.  Project manager creates the product development plan and assigns tasks to a writer.  

    After product review the Project Manager updates the project schedule and assigns any rework back to the Writer.

    1.1.2     Develop Product

    Primary Actor – Writer

    The Writer creates or updates the product based on product development guidelines.  Write at later stage also incorporates feedback from the reviewers in to the product.

    1.1.3     Develop Assessment Instrument

    Primary Actor – Writer

    As part of product development process, the Writer creates an assessment instrument.

    1.1.4     Access Product Development Guidelines

    Primary Actor – Writer

    Secondary Actors – Reviewer, Editor

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    1.1.5     Edit Product

    Primary Actor – Editor

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    1.1.6     Review Product

    Primary Actor – Reviewer

    The reviewer reviews the product and assessment instrument.  If changes are required, the product and assessment instrument are passed back to the Project Manager to schedule updatesReview Product

    Primary Actor – Reviewer

    Reviewer’s comments are discussed in a meeting and the feedback is officially formally collected using review forms.

                   Kindly provide your inputs and revert back for any clarification.

    Thanks

    Girish

  294. @ Girishgouda: I am sure it would interest many people here if you post your blog URL. For sure you have written more about it.

  295. BPM software says:

    Very useful and very interesting

    Thanks

  296. What is the Windows Workflow Foundation roadmap?

  297. Manduca says:

    Thanks for the stuff david, it was very helpful for me.

  298. Thanks for very interesting article.derek

  299. Cool stuff … Interesting stuff

  300. We want to build a workflow to handle this scenario. 😉

  301. Thanx for the clear examples, students who are doing a project on WWF were referring to this blog and find this blog very useful.

  302. Thank you author for interesting information article

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  311. FUE says:

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  312. Mwamba says:

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  313. Manduca says:

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    Please continue your infos in the Blog.

  314. kienph says:

    I think there are only 2 types of workflows.

    "Workflows come in two varieties: sequential and state machine."

    Refer from page 60 in "Pro WF Windows Workflow in .NET 3.0" publish by Apress.

  315. Very useful article, thanks for your thoughts! I wrote my thesis about this topic, unfotunately I found your blog until now… But your summary is very good!

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    olli

  316. Werbetechnik says:

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  319. Arun Antony says:

    Thanks for this great insight on workflow rules to decide on which workflow technique to use. This article is really helpful as its very simple and explains in a very practical summary.

  320. Dennis says:

    Brilliant Job Dave. Thanks a Lot for all the workflow information. I needed them for my study in Germany.

    But now i have to work on my boss’s Homepage http://www.strandkoje.de and http://www.immobilien-hillmer.de  Hope to hear more from you in your blog. Greetz from Germany Dennis

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