C# Expansions 101

Jeff Key of NetPing and SnippetCompiler fame,
wrote a nice expansion for using a generic
, so I thought I would share some useful information on expansions.

NOTE - This is all based on Whidbey Tech Preview, so things can and
will change.

What are Expansions?

Expansions are fill-in-the-blank snippets of code that have several benefits. 
They help automate boiler-plate code constructs like looping through a collection
using a foreach statement, they help reduce syntax errors and they're a
perfect example of code-focused RAD.  One of the things you'll notice with C#
Whidbey is the concept of code-focused RAD, meaning RAD isn't just limited to drag-and-drop
wizards, we're going to add productivity features directly into the
code editor where C# developers spend the majority of their time.

Note - You can find the list of expansions that come with Whidbey in the "C:\Program
Files\Microsoft Visual Studio .NET Whidbey\VC#\ExStencil\" directory.

Dissecting an Expansion

To help explain expansions, I've created two simple custom expansions in an xml file
named custom1.xml and placed the file in the ExStensil directory mentioned above. 
The two expansion are explained below: 

  • Console ReadLine: This is a very simple expansion that automates calling the Readline
    method of the Console class. 
  • Console WriteLine: This is a slightly more complicated expansion that shows how you
    can use variables directly within an expansion by calling the Writeline method of
    the Console class. 

$selected$ $end$

$selected$ $end$

The code for these expansions is below:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
  <title>Console ReadLine</title>
  <description>Expansion snippet for Console.ReadLine</description>
  <code language="csharp">
   $selected$ $end$
  <title>Console WriteLine</title>
  <description>Expansion snippet for Console.WriteLine</description>
  <literal default="true">
   <tooltip>Value to write to the Console</tooltip>
  <default>"hello world"</default>
  <code language="csharp">
   $selected$ $end$

All expansions are written inside of <ExStencil><ExStencil> tags. If you
have multiple expansions in a file, they should be within <ExStencilCollection></ExStencilCollection>

Header Section 

The header section defines the general attributes of an expansion.  Below are
definitions of the tags within the header section: 

  • title: The expansion's title.
  • shortcut: These are the shortcut keys needed to invoke the expansion.
  • description: This is the more verbose description of the expansion.
  • category: This can be "Expansion" and/or "SurroundWith", I'll blog more on
    SurroundWith in the future...

The title and description values are used to provide information to the developer
using the expansion.  For example, when a user sees the list of available expansions,
if they highlight an expansion, they will see the expansion title and description
in this format: title(description). In the case of Console.ReadLine,
the user will see "Console ReadLine (Expansion snippet for Console.ReadLine)". 
The category value determines which IDE context menu will list the expansion. 

Snippet Section

The next section of the expansion is the snippet section which is divided into two
sections, the declarations and the code section.  The declarations section contains
any user defined variables, while the code section represents the actual code for
the expansion.  Below are definitions of tags within the declaration section:

  • literal: Literals represent variables within your code.
  • id: The id tag represents an identifier for a variable.
  • default: The default tag represents the default value for that variable.
  • tooltip: The tooltip is a description that is displayed to the user when inserting
    a value for the variable.

For example, when a user invokes the Console WriteLine expansion, the cursor is placed
directly on the value literal, which by default will have the value "hello world". 
Visual Studio will automatically select the text, so if a user starts typing, the
default value is automatically replaced. 

The next part is the actual code for the expansion, which is rendered in a CDATA XML
tag so that XML parsers ignore the contents and you can use reserved XML escape characters
like "?", "<", ">", in the code section.

  • $variable name$: Literals declared in the header section should be
    surrounded with "$" symbols to denote that they are variables.
  • $selected$: This built-in variable determines where the cursor will be positioned
    when the expansion is completed.
  • $end$: This built-in variable denotes the end of the expansion.

In the Console WriteLine expansion, the code section is declared such that the $value$
variable will be directly inside the Writeline method call.  After completing
the expansion, the cursor will then be positioned on the $selected$ section. 


As you can see, writing expansions is easy, and they're one of my favorite features in
Whidbey.  If you're into experimentation, I suggest you open up the expansions.xml
file located in the ExStencils directory and begin playing.  I'll be
providing more information on expansions in future posts, but if you have feedback
on expansions (both the good and the bad) please let us know.

Comments (3)

  1. Nils Jonsson says:

    I hadn’t heard about expansions before. It sounds a bit like a smarter variant of macros in C/C++.

  2. Ryan says:

    This is a great example of how to use expansions. I was able to implement some of my own. What about the debugger visualizations demoed at PDC where you could dump out a dataset or other object to a more viewable format. Are there any examples of how to do these?

  3. What is xml comment shortcut key in C#, please give me in emailid

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