Here's a really good paper on how to utilize SharePoint to create application templates - it goes through all the different features of SharePoint - lists, workflows, SharePoint Desinger, forms, etc. Now let's see who can utilize it to create some interesting Science based templates...
Windows SharePoint Services Document: Application Templates for Windows SharePoint Services 3.0 – Under the Hood
Windows SharePoint Services 3.0 is a technology of Windows Server that offers an integrated portfolio of collaboration and communication services. It is also a platform for developing Web-based business applications. Taking advantage of this capability, Microsoft has developed forty Application Templates to provide out-of-the-box solutions to address the needs of common business processes, such as coordinating a Help Desk or tracking marketing campaigns.
This white paper describes how Microsoft developed the Application Templates, identifying best practices for how to work with core capabilities within both Windows SharePoint Services and Office SharePoint Designer 2007, with the goal of empowering customers and partners to create their own applications.