I was experimenting with the SharePoint 2010 User Profile Service. I had a simple console application and used the code found in the UserProfileManager documentation as a starting point. But any time I tried to create a new UserProfileManager object I got an UserProfileApplicationNotAvailableException.
I made sure I followed all of the steps in Configure profile synchronization but I still was getting the exception.
Steve Peschka finally pointed me to his post on "No User Profile Application Available" Mystery in SharePoint 2010′ and that solved it.