With the announcement last week in ScottGu’s blog, Azure Mobile Service now supports different kinds of authentication in addition to authentication using the Windows Live SDK which was supported at first. You can now authenticate the users of your applications using Facebook, Google, Twitter and even Microsoft Accounts (formerly known as Live IDs) without any native SDK for those providers, just like on web applications. In fact, the authentication is done exactly by the application showing an embedded web browser control which talks to the authentication provider’s websites. In the example below, we see an app using Twitter to authenticate its user.
The tutorial Getting Started with Users shows how to set up the authentication, including creating applications in each of the supported providers. It’s a great tutorial, and when everything works fine, then great, we’ll add the authentication code to the client (quite small, especially for managed Windows Store apps), users can login and we’re all good. However, there are cases where we just don’t get the behavior we want, and we end up with a client which just can’t correctly authenticate.
There are a number of issues which may be causing this problem, and the nature of authentication of connected mobile applications, with three distinct components (the mobile app itself, the Azure Mobile Service, and the identity provider) makes debugging it harder than simple applications.
There is, however, one nice trick which @tjanczuk (who actually implemented this feature) taught me and can make troubleshooting such problems a little easier. What we do essentially is to remove one component of the equation (the mobile application), to make debugging the issue simpler. The trick is simple: since the application is actually hosting a browser control to perform the authentication, we’ll simply use a real browser to do that. By talking to the authentication endpoints of the mobile service runtime directly, we can see what’s going on behind the scenes of the authentication protocol, and hopefully fix our application.
The authentication endpoint
Before we go into broken scenarios, let’s talk a about the authentication endpoint which we have in the Azure Mobile Services runtime. As of the writing of this post the REST API Reference for Windows Azure Mobile Services has yet to be updated for the server-side (web-based) authentication support, so I’ll cover it briefly here.
The authentication endpoint for an Azure Mobile Service responds to GET requests to https://<service-name>.azure-mobile.net/login/<providerName>, where <providerName> is one of the supported authentication providers (currently “facebook”, “google”, “microsoftaccount” or “twitter”). When a browser (or the embedded browser control) sends a request to that address, the Azure Mobile Service runtime will respond with a redirect (HTTP 302) response to the appropriate page on the authentication provider (for example, the twitter page shown in the first image of this post). Once the user enters valid credentials, the provider will redirect it back to the Azure Mobile Service runtime with its specific authentication token. At that time, the runtime will validate those credentials with the provider, and then issue its own token, which will be used by the client as the authentication token to communicate with the service.
The diagram above shows a rough picture of the authentication flow. Notice that the client may send more than one request to the authentication provider, as it’s often first asks the user to enter its credentials, then (at least once per application) asks the user to allow the application to use its credentials. What the browser control in the client does is to monitor the URL to where it’s navigating, and when it sees that it’s navigating to the /login/done endpoint, it will know that the whole authentication “dance” has finished. At that point, the client can dispose the browser control and store the token to authenticate future requests it sends.
This whole protocol is just a bunch of GET requests and redirect responses. That’s something that a “regular” browser can handle pretty well, so we can use that to make sure that the server is properly set up. So we’ll now see some scenarios where we can use a browser to troubleshoot the server-side authentication. For this scenario I prefer to use either Google Chrome or Mozilla Firefox, since they can display JSON payloads in the browser itself, without needing to go to the developer tools. With Internet Explorer you can also do that, but by default it asks you to save the JSON response in a file, which I personally find annoying. Let’s move on to some problems and how to identify them.
Once the mobile service application is created, no identity provider credentials are set in the portal. If the authentication with a specific provider is not working, you can try browsing to it. In my application I haven’t set the authentication credentials for Google login, so I’ll get a response saying so in the browser.
To fix this, go to the portal, and enter the correct credentials. Notice that there was a bug in the portal until last week where the credentials were not being properly propagated to the mobile service runtime (it has since been fixed). If you added the credentials once this was released, you can try removing them, then adding them again, and it should go through.
Missing redirect URL
In all of the providers you need to set the redirect URL so that the provider knows to, after authenticating the user, redirect it back to the Azure Mobile Service login page. By using the browser we can check see that error clearer than when using an actual mobile application. For example, this is what we get when we forget to set the “Site URL” property on Facebook, after we browse to https://my-application-name.azure-mobile.net/login/facebook:
And for Windows Live (a.k.a. Microsoft Accounts), after browsing to https://my-application-name.azure-mobile/login/microsoftaccount:
Not as clear an error as the one from Facebook, but if you look at the URL in the browser (may need to copy/paste to a text editor to see better):
It will have an error description saying that “The provided value for the input parameter 'redirect_uri' is not valid”.
For other providers the experience is similar.
Maybe when copying the credentials from the provider site to the Windows Azure Mobile Services portal, the authentication will also fail, but only after going through . In this case, most providers will just say that there is a problem in the request, so one spot to look for issues is on the credentials to see if the ones in the portal match the ones in the provider page. Here are some examples of what you’ll see in the browser when that problem happens. Twitter will mention a problem with the OAuth request (OAuth being the protocol used in the authentication):
Facebook, Microsoft and Google accounts have different errors depending on whether the error is at the client / app id or the client secret. If the error is at the client id, then the provider will display an error right away. For example, Microsoft accounts will show its common error page
But the error description parameter in the URL shows the actual problem: “The client does not exist. If you are the application developer, configure a new application through the application management site at https://manage.dev.live.com/.” Facebook isn’t as clear, with a generic error.
Google is clearer, showing the error right on the first page:
Now, when the client / app id is correct, but the problem is on the app secret, then all three providers (Microsoft, Facebook, Google) will show the correct authentication page, asking for the user credentials. Only when the authentication with the provider is complete, and it redirects it back to the Azure Mobile Service (step 5 in the authentication flow diagram above), and the runtime tries to validate the token with the provider is that it will show the error. Here are the errors which the browser will show in this case. First, Facebook:
I’ve shown the most common problems which we’ve seen here which we can control. But as usual, there may be times where things just don’t work – network connectivity issues, blackouts on the providers. As with all distributed systems, those issues can arise from time to time which are beyond the control of the Azure Mobile Services. For those cases, you should confirm that those components are working correctly as well.
When everything is fine
Hopefully some of the troubleshoots steps I’ve shown here you’ve been able to fix your server-side authentication with the Azure Mobile Services. If that’s the case, you should see this window.
And with that window (code: 200), you’ll know that, at least the server / provider portion of the authentication dance is ready. With the simple client API, hopefully that will be enough to get your application authentication support.