SharePoint has always had a variety of server-side extensibility points. When a developer is creating a custom application or service there are many extensibility points that can be leveraged: event handlers, web parts, web pages, web services, workflow activities, InfoPath forms, and more. In previous versions of SharePoint, only a farm administrator had permissions to deploy new server-side functionality to the servers.
Beginning with the SharePoint 2010 release, we started allowing site administrators to deploy certain types of customizations and applications without requiring the involvement of a farm administrator. To protect all of the server-side resources from malicious code, inefficient code, and naive overconsumption of resources, we execute these types of solutions in the new Sandboxed Code Service. The sandbox provides a constrained, monitored, scalable runtime environment where code can be executed. Farm administrators get to choose what server(s) in the farm they want the Sandbox Code Service to run on. Site administrators get to choose what solution(s) they want to allow in their site collections.
Whenever code is executing within the sandbox, it is limited in the scope of what it can do. For example, the code will not have network access or direct SQL access. This is so that we can protect the rest of the servers in SharePoint farm as well as other non-SharePoint servers that may be on the same network. You can, of course, access and manipulate data stored within SharePoint from within the sandbox. In addition to that, we do allow code in the sandbox to access external data but it must do so using the Business Data Connectivity object model. This is so that farm administrators can still have control over what non-SharePoint enterprise data the sandboxed code can have access to.
In the 2010 release, many SharePoint extensibility points were upgraded to enable sandboxed execution: web parts, event handlers, workflow actions, and InfoPath forms. But there are still some extensibility points that a non-sandboxed solution can deploy to the server for which there is not yet a sandboxed equivalent: ASMX web services, ASPX page-level code-behind, ASP.Net request handlers, and more.
I could go on for some time talking about the sandbox (I was one of the primary architects) but that’s not my intention with this post. There are already many other articles out there that go into lots of detail describing the sandbox runtime environment and how to create solutions designed for sandboxed execution. This one is a good starting point.
With this post, what I wanted to do was to demonstrate how you can, with some constraints, achieve sandboxed execution of a web service.
When someone says “web service” what comes to mind? For many people, it’s a SOAP-based web service and an ASMX-based implementation that come to mind.
But that’s not what I think of when I think of a web service. To me, a web service is simply a service that does something remotely over the web. It is an http-based endpoint where I can send a request, have it do something, and get an answer back. There are so many options: the service could be SOAP-based; it could be REST-based; it could be a service that doesn’t conform to any industry standards; the data that is returned from the service could be XML, JSON, HTML, plain text; it could be encoded as ANSI, UTF-8, UCS-2; or it could be binary data like an image.
So, while it is certainly true that SharePoint 2010 does not support sandboxed execution of ASMX-based web services, that doesn’t mean that you can’t create sandboxed web services.
The approach that I’m taking here for a sandboxed web service is to leverage a sandboxed web part.
A web part is typically used to generate a fragment of a web page: a summary of recent changes in a document library, a sales forecast chart, some stock quotes, etc. With a web browser, users can add web parts to pages and drag them around within a variety of page layouts.
When a user is adding or editing a web part, there is generally no distinction made between full-trust and sandboxed web parts. There is a single web part selection and editing experience that hides the differences from the user. There are a few scenarios where there the differences are visible but these are not common so must users never know about the difference.
But when it comes to the underlying ASPX markup, they are actually quite different.
Sandboxed Web Part
In this example, you can see the markup where a full-trust web part is directly inserted into the page markup without using a web part zone.
- <Samples:HelloWorldWebPart runat="server" id="TestControl" />
A sandboxed web part can also be inserted into page markup, but the markup looks quite a bit different. The control that you are inserting through the page markup is actually an instance of the full-trust web part SPUserCodeWebPart and not the sandboxed web part itself. The SPUserCodeWebPart is as a wrapper for the sandboxed web part. As with any other page control, you configure the wrapper web part using properties. These properties allow you to specify which sandboxed web part should actually be rendered.
- <WebPartPages:SPUserCodeWebPart runat="server"
- AssemblyFullName="BillGr.Samples.SandboxedWebRequest, Version=22.214.171.124, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=d8450410d7e9e6dc"
- id="g_fdc562ed_ec2f_41db_bfd3_a8d5fd283619" />
When the ASPX page is rendered, the SPUserCodeWebPart will activate an instance of the sandboxed web part over in the sandbox service and then ask the sandboxed web part to render its HTML output. When the wrapper web part receives the output back from the sandboxed web part, it inserts that output into the standard page response stream without any modification.
So, from what I’ve described so far, you should be able to see that if we were to create an ASPX page with a sandboxed web part then we would be able to send web requests to this page and get the sandboxed web part to do something on our behalf. Isn’t that the essence of a web service?
Removing Extraneous Output
Now, the web part is a control in an ASPX page. The output of the web part will coexist with:
- The static markup that is in the ASPX page
- Output from other controls that are in the page
- Static markup that is in the master page
- Output from controls that are in the master page.
If I’m using this web page as a web service then how is my client supposed to know what part of the response is from the web part and what is from the various other things in the page?
So, what if we take our sandboxed web part and put it into an ASPX page that doesn’t have anything else in it. Instead of using a “normal” SharePoint ASPX page, let’s use a custom ASPX page that has no other controls, no web part zones, and does not use a master page. What would the server return back to the caller? Well, if we were careful with the whitespace in the ASPX page, we can setup the page so that every single character in the response would be output from the sandboxed web part itself.
Any whitespace that is between directive tags will not be included in the response. So these can each be on their own lines. However, any text or whitespace that exists after the last directive will be included. So if you do not want your web service response to start out with a newline then you’ll need to start the markup for your sandboxed web part on the same line and immediately after the final %>. You will also need to watch out that you do not add any extra text or whitespace after the web part definition because that will also be included in every response immediately following the output of your web part.
- <%@ Page Inherits="Microsoft.SharePoint.WebPartPages.WebPartPage" %>
- <%@ Register Tagprefix="WebPartPages"
- Assembly="Microsoft.SharePoint, Version=126.96.36.199, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=71e9bce111e9429c"
- Namespace="Microsoft.SharePoint.WebPartPages" %><WebPartPages:SPUserCodeWebPart runat="server"
- AssemblyFullName="BillGr.Samples.SandboxedWebRequest, Version=188.8.131.52, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=d8450410d7e9e6dc"
- id="g_fdc562ed_ec2f_41db_bfd3_a8d5fd283619" />
Let’s look at a simple web part that returns plain text:
- using System;
- using System.Collections.Generic;
- using System.Linq;
- using System.Web;
- using System.Web.UI.WebControls.WebParts;
- namespace BillGr.Samples
- /// <summary>
- /// Sample web part that says "Hello world."
- /// </summary>
- public class HelloWorldWebPart : WebPart
- protected override void Render(System.Web.UI.HtmlTextWriter writer)
- writer.Write("Hello world.");
Now, why am I overriding the Render method? Aren’t all web parts supposed to override the RenderContents method? Well, think about what these two methods do. In a “normal” web part, the base class handles the Render method and its job is to spit out the chrome of the web part (title, frame, etc.) that goes around the body of the web part. After the Render method has generated the opening tags of the chrome, it will then call the RenderContents method in the child class to render the body of the web part. Once RenderContents is done, execution will return back to Render which will then generate the chrome’s closing tags. By overriding Render, we can ensure that no web part chrome is rendered and the only output that is generated comes from our child class.
Next, we will insert this plain text web part into an “empty” ASPX page as described above. This results in a page with no chrome and a web part with no chrome. If you navigate to the web page using a browser, you will get a simple plain text response. If you were to “view source”, you would see that every character in the response came from the web part’s Render method.
Now, you should be able to use this new ASPX page as a web service from some other ASPX page:
- <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
- <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
- <head runat="server">
- <title>Hello World Client</title>
- function callButton_OnClick()
- var request = getXMLHttpRequest();
- request.open("GET", "HelloWorldWebService.aspx", true);
- request.onreadystatechange = function ()
- if (request.readyState == 4)
- var outputPanel = document.getElementById("outputPanel");
- outputPanel.innerHTML += "Response received: " + request.responseText + "<br />";
- <form id="form1" runat="server">
- Click the button to call the web service:<br />
- <input type="button" id="callButton" value="Call" onclick="callButton_OnClick()" />
- <div id="outputPanel" />
Clicking on the “Call” button a few times and, you’ll see.
As I mentioned above, the full-trust wrapper web part simply takes the output string from the sandboxed web part and returns it to the client. This means that your web part can return data as XML, JSON, CSV, or any other text format that it wants.
However, you do not have complete control over the response. The web front end that is running the ASPX page is who owns the actual response stream that goes back to the client – not the sandboxed web part. The page also owns the content-type and encoding format of the response. This means that your sandboxed web part cannot alter these parameters of the response. Your web part will have to live with a text-only response stream. You can set the encoding format in the @Page directive (the default in SharePoint is UTF-8) but you can’t set the content type. The scenario where you want to return binary files (ex: images) remains a full-trust scenario only:
- protected override void OnLoad(EventArgs e)
- string imageName = this.Page.Request.QueryString["Name"];
- if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(imageName))
- string contentType = null;
- byte fileContents = this.GetImageContents(imageName, out contentType);
- HttpResponse response = this.Page.Response;
- response.ContentType = contentType;
In this sample solution, I’ve included the following:
Sandboxed web part – This web part returns SharePoint list items in JSON format. You can use the source code below and modify it to return XML or any other format that you want. The query string of the web part’s host page is used to send parameters to the web part. There are two input parameters: ListName is the name of the SharePoint list and ViewName is, optionally, the name of a view from that SharePoint list. The list that you specify must be in the same site as the ASPX page that is hosting the web part. Please Note: To discourage the use of this sample in production, the web part is limited to returning output for only the first ten items in the result set. Please get the source below and modify it for your specific scenario.
Host ASPX page – This is an “empty” ASPX page that hosts the sandboxed web part and acts as the endpoint of the web service. This page will be created at <YourSiteCollectionUrl>/AppPages/SandboxedWebService.aspx.
Sample “client app” page – This is an ASPX page that acts as a sample “client app.” It prompts you for the list/view names and then navigates to the web service allowing the browser to display the response. If you were building this solution for production use you would probably want to leave this page out of your solution. This page will be created at <YourSiteCollectionUrl>/TestClient/TestSandboxedWebService.aspx. Sample results are shown below:
Steps To Create Your Own Solution
For a solution like this, you should not start with the Visual Studio “Visual Web Part” solution template because it will take you down the ASCX path. Instead of an ASCX you want a code-based web part – but there isn’t a template for that. Instead, start out by creating a solution using the “Empty SharePoint Project” template. Set the trust level for this solution to be a sandboxed solution. In the empty solution, you should use “Add / New Item” and choose “Web Part” using whichever language you want to use. This will add a code-based web part to the solution.
By default, a .webpart file will also be added to your solution for this new web part. When developing a “normal” web part, this is likely a file that you want. It is needed for your web part to appear in the web part selection UI when a user chooses to add a web part to a page. However, there is only one page where we want this web part to be used and that is in the host ASPX page. We do not want users adding this web part to any other pages in the site . To prevent this, delete the .webpart file from the solution. The .webpart file does not need to be included in the solution in order for the web part to be used in a page. When you delete the .web part file in the Visual Studio solution, the corresponding changes to the feature/element manifests will be done for you automatically.
Next, you need to use “Add / New Item” and choose Module so that you can add the ASPX page that will host the sandboxed web part. A module lets you add any type of file to the SharePoint site. It comes with a default file named Sample.txt which you can rename to SandboxedWebRequest.aspx or whatever you desire. If you examine the Elements.xml file for this module, you will notice that, by default, the files for this module are automatically placed into a top-level folder of the site that has the same name as the module. This is advisable to keep the files from your solution separated from files in another solution. If common file names are used in the same directory by two different solutions then that will be a problem. One of the two solutions would be broken. Keeping things in solution-specific directories is advised.
Lastly, you’ll need to alter the markup in the ASPX page so that you have the minimalist markup described above. Note that in the markup for the SPUserCodeWebPart, the property AssemblyFullName contains the public key token of the assembly. If you sign your solution with a different key than I used (which I strongly suggest you do) and you cut-n-paste markup from my sample, then you will need to alter the public key token value to match whatever key you are using.
One other point, if you ever change the namespace or the class name of your web part, you will need to edit one of the files that drives the Visual Studio SharePoint build process. Unfortunately, there is no built-in UI for editing this file nor will you find the file in the Solution Explorer pane. You will need to either go to the file system or to the source browser (if you’ve got source control enabled). Look for the file SharePointProjectItem.spdata in the same directory as your web part source file and fix the SafeControl entry for your web part to have the right namespace and class name. Fortunately, this file leverages the build-time macro “$SharePoint.Project.AssemblyFullName$” to dynamically insert the strong name of the assembly. It will automatically get the public key token from your assembly so you do not have to futz with that part of this file if you change your key file.
Downloading The Sample
There are two downloads available from the MSDN Code Gallery for this sample:
SharePoint Solution – This is a working .WSP that you can upload to the Solution Gallery for your site collection and activate it. Once you do this, the sandboxed web part, the web service ASPX page, and the test client ASPX page will be added to the root site of your site collection. Again, to discourage the use of this sample in production, the web part is limited to returning output for only the first ten items in the result set. Please get the source below and modify it for your specific scenario.
Visual Studio Project – This is a .ZIP file containing the VS 2010 SharePoint solution that was used to generate the WSP above.
As with any of my other samples, you are free to use the solution in your site or take the source code and leverage it in some other solution that you are working on. Just keep in mind that this is a sample and, as such, has no warranty, no guarantee that it will work in all environments, and no promise that a future version of SharePoint won't break it.