No rocket-science here, but nicely structured summary.
Cost-plus versus value-based pricing
There are two basic methods of pricing your products and services: cost-plus and value-based pricing. The best choice depends on your type of business, what influences your customers to buy and the nature of your competition.
This takes the cost of producing your product or service and adds an amount that you need to make a profit. This is usually expressed as a percentage of the cost. It is generally more suited to businesses that deal with large volumes or which operate in markets dominated by competition on price. But cost-plus pricing ignores your image and market positioning. And hidden costs are easily forgotten, so your true profit per sale is often lower than you realise.
This focuses on the price you believe customers are willing to pay, based on the benefits your business offers them. Value-based pricing depends on the strength of the benefits you can prove you offer to customers. See our guide on how to sell the benefits, not the features. If you have clearly-defined benefits that give you an advantage over your competitors, you can charge according to the value you offer customers. While this approach can prove very profitable, it can alienate potential customers who are driven only by price and can also draw in new competitors.
Different pricing tactics
Different tactics can help you attract more customers and maximise profits.
Offering specially-reduced prices can be a powerful tool. This could be a clearance discount to sell old stock, a discount for making multiple purchases of the same or similar products, or you could offer bulk discounts to encourage larger orders. You should be able to make these more profitable through lower costs.
But be careful. If you discount too much, customers may question your full-rate pricing or see you as a cheap option, making it difficult to charge full-rate prices in the future.
Odd value pricing
Using the retailer's tactic of selling products for £9.99 instead of £10 can be useful if price is an essential part of customers' buying decisions. Some customers perceive odd value prices like this as being more attractive.
This involves selling a product at a low or even loss-making price. Although you may not make a profit selling this product, you could attract customers who will also buy other, more profitable products.
If you have a unique product or service, you can sell it at a high price. This is known as skimming - but you need to be sure that what you are selling is unique. Otherwise you may just price yourself out of the market if there is credible competition.
This is the opposite of skimming - starting at a low price and gaining market share before competitors catch up with you. Once you have a loyal customer base, you should be able to find ways to raise prices later. See the page in this guide on raising or lowering prices.