Inheritance in the Entity Framework


One of the coolest features of the ADO.NET Entity Framework is the ability to use inheritance in your database! Very cool, but what does it mean, and why is it important?


War of the worlds



The world of relational data is based around tuples, which have an inherent two dimensional structure. Think of a database table with rows and columns; it is a very two dimensional idea. Relationships, UDTs, views, etc are all extensions of this two dimensional view. This structure allows for the power we know and love in products like SQL Server, with features like query optimization, indexes, views, etc.



Object oriented programming (OOP) drives higher developer productivity and allows for applications to better represent the world in which they operate. One of the ways that they do this is by utilizing inheritance. Inheritance allows for an application to better model the data, and also provides the ability to extend an existing model and application in interesting ways.


Union of worlds

While the relational model has a lot of power, its way of looking at the world is somewhat at odds with the gestalt of object oriented programming.


The Entity Framework helps bridge these worlds by bringing the power of inheritance to the world of data access in ways that make sense and allow for the best features of both to shine through. To illustrate this, we will look at some of the benefits of OOP, and see how the Entity Framework helps bring these benefits to the store.


Why OOP?


Problem Modeling

In OOP, inheritance is often used to represent objects that have a IS-A relationship. This simply means that one object is a specialization of the other. For example, think of an online store with Products. A Product has certain attributes and data associated with it. Now, there is also a Discontinued Product which has all the same data as a regular Product, but also something more, namely a discontinued date.  You could create a new object to represent the Discontinued Product, but it makes a lot more sense to create a new object that inherits from Product, and adds the additional field. After all, programmers are lazy, and why would I want to write more code then I need to!


Application Extension

You’ve done such a great job, and this online store has such a great database and application driving it, it’s ready to expand into new markets. The store is ready to branch out into seasonal products!


This scenario really shows off the extension power of OOP. You simply need to write a new object that inherits from Product and applies some different logic in its methods. For example, you might only show summer products in the summer or automatically provide a 10% discount for summer products in the fall. And all of the existing systems to manage inventory, shopping carts, etc just continue to work, as everything is still made up of Products!


How the Entity Framework bridges the gap


The ideas presented above are fairly basic; generally introduced in OOP 101. So what is the big deal? Let’s look at how we apply these scenarios in the Entity Framework, so we can see how powerful it is. This will also give us an opportunity to dive into the specifics of how the translation of OOP ideas to the relational world works.


To make the scenario specific, let’s use the example of an online hardware store, with both Discontinued Products, and Seasonal Products. The Entity Data Model (CSDL) for the Products might look something like the following.


<EntityType Name=Product Key=ProductID>

  <Property Name=ProductID Type=Int32 Nullable=false />

  <Property Name=Name Type=String MaxLength=500 Nullable=false/>

  <Property Name=Price Type=Decimal Nullable=false />



<EntityType Name=DiscontinuedProduct BaseType=Product>

  <Property Name=DiscontinuedDate Type=DateTime Nullable=false/>



<EntityType Name=SeasonalProduct BaseType=Product>

  <Property Name=OffSeasonDiscount Type=Float Nullable=false/>



The CLR code for this situation is not shown, but we would have the same inheritance hierarchy in the generated CLR classes, with the full capabilities that this implies. The interesting thing with respect to this post is the OO to relational mapping.


Table per Hierarchy

Let’s start with the Discontinued Product, and see how you might model this in a database. You know that you will need to maintain a list of discontinued products (to maintain referential integrity), so you might create a table that contains all products with data like the following.






Discontinued Date







Bubble level





How do you use inheritance with data like this? Looking at the data, you know that when the Discontinued field is true, we’re dealing with a discontinued product. This is exactly the way that Table per Hierarchy (TPH) works! The idea is that the entire OO hierarchy is contained in one table, with some column(s) acting as discriminator. The value of the discriminator is what informs the Entity Framework what OO type each row contains.