Last week at the Australian Partner Conference, I presented a session on "New opportunities - developing with Office 2010 and SharePoint". Due partly to the target audience and partly to time constraints, I mentioned resources rather than delving into them deeply. I promised in the session that I'd post my resources links here.
Note that you'll soon be able to download the deck as well from the APC website.
Visual Studio 2010/.Net Framework 4 Training Kit
SharePoint 2010: Developer Platform White Paper by David Chappell